DSM – diagnostic and statistical manual, CEPH – Center for human polymorphisms COGA – Collaborative study on the genetics of alcoholism, JGIDA – Japanese genetics initiative on drug abuse
GRU conceived the study and initiated its key collaborations, designed the research, interpreted data, drafted and polished the manuscript
QRL synthesized hybridization probes from DNA pools and helped manage data
TD participated in DNA pool construction, array analysis, data management and manuscript preparation and polishing
CJ participated in data management and performed the statistical analysis
DW participated in DNA pool construction, array analyses and data management
JER oversaw the consenting and clinical assessments of subjects, participated in data analyses and interpretation and in manuscript preparation and polishing.
All authors read and approved the final manuscript
This research was supported financially by the NIH Intramural Research Program, NIDA, DHSS and by unrestricted support for studies of adult smoking cessation to the Duke Center for Nicotine and Smoking Cessation Research from Philip Morris USA, Inc. We are grateful to the team led by Frederique M. Behm, Prity Kukovich and Eric C. Westman, M.D for assistance with conduct of the clinical trials at Duke, to advice on the manuscript and statistical approaches from Dr Greg Samsa and to Dan Lipstein, Fely Carillo, Judith Hess and other Johns Hopkins-Bayview support staff for assistance with characterization of control subjects from the NIH-IRP.