Molecular and bioengineering strategies to improve alginate and polydydroxyalkanoate production by Azotobacter vinelandii
Enrique Galindo1, Carlos Peña1, Cinthia Núñez2, Daniel Segura2 and Guadalupe Espín2
1Departamento de Ingeniería Celular y Biocatálisis, Instituto de Biotecnología, Universidad Nacional, Autónoma de México, Apdo. Post. 510-3 Cuernavaca, 62250, Morelos, México
2Departamento de Microbiología Molecular, Instituto de Biotecnología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma, de México, Apdo. Post. 510-3 Cuernavaca, 62250, Morelos, México
Several aspects of alginate and PHB synthesis in Azotobacter vinelandii at a molecular level have been elucidated in articles published during the last ten years. It is now clear that alginate and PHB synthesis are under a very complex genetic control. Genetic modification of A. vinelandii has produced a number of very interesting mutants which have particular traits for alginate production. One of these mutants has been shown to produce the alginate with the highest mean molecular mass so far reported. Recent work has also shed light on the factors determining molecular mass distribution; the most important of these being identified as; dissolved oxygen tension and specific growth rate. The use of specific mutants has been very useful for the correct analysis and interpretation of the factors affecting polymerization. Recent scale-up/down work on alginate production has shown that oxygen limitation is crucial for producing alginate of high molecular mass, a condition which is optimized in shake flasks and which can now be reproduced in stirred fermenters. It is clear that the phenotypes of mutants grown on plates are not necessarily reproducible when the strains are tested in lab or bench scale fermenters. In the case of PHB, A. vinelandii has shown itself able to produce relatively large amounts of this polymer of high molecular weight on cheap substrates, even allowing for simple extraction processes. The development of fermentation strategies has also shown promising results in terms of improving productivity. The understanding of the regulatory mechanisms involved in the control of PHB synthesis, and of its metabolic relationships, has increased considerably, making way for new potential strategies for the further improvement of PHB production. Overall, the use of a multidisciplinary approach, integrating molecular and bioengineering aspects is a necessity for optimizing alginate and PHB production in A. vinelandii.
Microbial Cell Factories 2007, 6:7. Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0).