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Figures
- The molecular basis of transdifferentiation

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Fig. 1 In vitro transdifferentiation of pancreas and liver. (A) Hepatocytes can be induced from pancreatic AR42JB13 cells following treatment with the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone. The transdifferentiation is observed by (1) the alteration to a flattened cell morphology, (2) the repression of pancreatic markers such as amylase and (3) the induction of liver proteins. (B) Introduction of an activated form of Pdx1, Xlhbox8VP16, into HepG2 human hepatoma cells induces multiple pancreatic markers [39].

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Fig. 2 Transdifferentiation of liver to pancreas in Xenopus tadpoles. (A) Green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the control of the pancreas-specific elastase promoter (Elas) is expressed in the pancreas of transgenic tadpoles. P, pancreas; L, liver. (B) Proposed scheme for transdifferentiation in transgenic Xenopus. Xlhbox8VP16 is expressed in the liver of TTR-Xlhbox8VP16; Elas-GFP transgenic tadpoles under the control of the hepatic-specific transthyretin (TTR) promoter. The ectopic pancreas (EP) in the liver is visualized by GFP. Persistent expression of GFP in older tadpoles indicates the stability of the transdifferentiated pancreas. Figure adapted with permission from reference 38.

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Fig. 3 Cell fusion and direct transdifferentiation of bone marrow-derived cells. Bone marrowderived cells may represent a new avenue for regenerative medicine. There are now examples that bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMDCs) can either fuse (neurons, liver, skeletal and cardiac muscle cells) or directly transdifferentiate to the target tissues (pancreas, hepatocytes and muscle stem cells).

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Source: J. Cell. Mol. Med. Vol 9, No 3, 2005 pp. 569-582

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