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- Modern Myths Concerning Life on Mars

[1] Levin, G.V. and P.A. Straat, “Completion of the Viking Labeled Release Experiment on Mars,” J. Mol. Evol. 14, 167-183, 1979.

[2] Cameron, R.E. and R.E. Benoit, Ecology 51, 801, 1970. See also Antarctic Soil No. 715.

[3] Biemann, K. et al., “The Search for Organic Substances and Inorganic Volatile Compounds in the Surface of Mars,” J. Geophys. Res. 82, 28, 4641-4662, 1977.

[4] Biemann, K., Viking Science Press Conf. Sept. 4, 1976, JPL.

[5] G. Levin, L. Kuznetz, and A. Lafleur, “Approaches to resolving the question of life on Mars,” Instruments, Methods, and Missions for Astrobiology, SPIE Proceedings 4137, 48-62, 2000.

[6] Benner, S., quoted in New Scientist article, “Buried Evidence,” March 24, 2000.

[7] Horowitz, N.H., G.L. Hobby and Jerry S. Hubbard, “Viking on Mars: The Carbon Assimilation Experiments,” J. Geo. Res. 82, 28, 4659-4662, 1977.

[8] Hubbard, J.S., J.P. Hardy, G.E. Voecks and E.E. Golub, “Photocatalytic Synthesis of Organic Compounds from CO and Water: Involvement of Surfaces in the Formation and Stabilization of Products”, J. Mol. Evol. 2, 149-166, 1973.

[9] Hargraves, R.B., D.W. Collinson, R.E. Arvidson and C.R. Spitzer, “The Viking Magnetic Properties Experiment: Primary Mission Results,” J. Geophys. Res. 82, 4547, 1977.

[10] Kerr, R.A., “Life or Volcanic Belching on Mars?” Science 303, 5666, 1953, 26 March 2004.

[11] Quam, L.O., ed., Research in the Antarctic, AAAS #93, Wash., DC, 1971.

[12] Moore, H.J. et al., “Surface Materials of the Viking Landing Sites,” J. Geophys. Res. 82:28, 4497-4523, 1977.

[13] Levin, G.V. and R.L. Levin, “Liquid Water and Life on Mars,” Instruments, Methods, and Missions for Astrobiology, SPIE Proceedings 3441, 30-41, July, 1998.

[14] Hecht, M., “Aqueous environments on contemporary Mars,” Instruments, Methods, and Missions for Astrobiology IV, Proceedings of SPIE 4495, 69-80, 2001.

[15] Op. cit. (5).

[16] “Mars rovers explore hints of salty water: Water one of several theories proposed,” by Robert Roy Britt, SPACE.com, February 19, 2004,


[17] Carpenter, E.J., S. Lin, and D.G. Capone, “Bacterial Activity in South Pole Snow,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology 66, 10, 4514-4517, 2000.

[18] Skidmore, M.L., J.M. Foght, and M.J. Sharp, “Microbial Life beneath a High Arctic Glacier,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology 66, 8, 3214-3220, 2000.

[19] Henry Moore to Gilbert Levin, personal communication, reported in Mars: The Living Planet, Barry DiGregorio, Frog, Ltd., Berkeley, CA, p. 70, 1977.

[20] Schwabe, A., “Blaualgen aus ariden Boden,” Fortsch. u. Fortschr. 34, pp. 194-197, 1960.

[21] Dorn, R.I., and T.M. Oberlander, “Microbial origin of desert varnish,” Science 213, p. 1245-1247, 1981.

[22] Flood, B.E., C. Allen, and T. Longazo, “Microbial fossils detected in desert varnish,” Astrobiology 2(4), 2003.

[23] Probst, L.W., C.C. Allen, K.L. Thomas-Keprta, S.J. Clemett, T.G. Longazo, M.A. Nelman-Gonzalez, and C. Sams, “Desert varnish - preservation of biofabrics and implications for Mars,” Lunar and Planetary Science 33, 1764, 2002.

[24] Spilde, M.N., “Subterranean manganese deposits in caves: analogies to rock varnish?,” Geological Society of America, Paper No. 216-13, Denver Annual Meeting, 2002.

[25] DiGregorio, B., “Rock Varnish as a Habitat for Extant Life on Mars,” Instruments, Methods, and Missions for Astrobiology, SPIE Proceedings 4495-13, 2001.

[26] Sherriff, L., “Shiny rocks could hold evidence of Martian life,” The Register, July 4th, 2006.

[27] Case, M., A. Dini, G.V. Levin, P.A. Straat, H.P.A. Van Dongen, and J.D. Miller, “Circadian rhythms and evidence for life on Mars,” Instruments, Methods, and Missions for Astrobiology, SPIE Proceedings 5555, 35, August 2004.

[28] Van Dongen, H., J. Miller, P. Straat and G. Levin, “A circadian biosignature in the Labeled Release data from Mars?” Instruments, Methods, and Missions for Astrobiology, SPIE Proceedings 5906, OC1-10, August 2005.

[29] G. Bianciardi, “Nonlinear Analysis of the Viking Lander 2 Labeled Release Data,” Proc. of the III European Workshop on Exo-Astrobiology on Mars: The search for Life, Madrid, Spain, 18-20 November 2003 (ESA SP-545, March 2004).

[30] Op. cit. (10).

[31] Howe, L., “Formaldehyde, Ammonia, and Benzene Molecules on Mars? Would Probably Mean Life,” www.earthfiles.com/news/printerfriendly.cfm?id=707 ).

[32] Krasnopolsky, V.A., J. P. Maillard, and T. C. Owen, “Detection of Methane in the Martian Atmosphere: Evidence for Life,” European Geosciences Union, 1st General Assembly, Nice, France, April 25-30, 2004.

[33] Whitehouse, D., “Ammonia may have been found in Mars' atmosphere which some scientists say could indicate life on the Red Planet,” Online Science Ed., BBC, reported in BBC News, July 15, 2004.

[34] Levin, G., “Scientific Logic for Life on Mars,” Instruments, Methods, and Missions for Astrobiology, SPIE Proceedings 4495, 81-88, July 2001.

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