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Biology Articles » Agriculture » Mechanisms underlying plant resilience to water deficits: prospects for water-saving agriculture » Table 1

Table 1
- Mechanisms underlying plant resilience to water deficits: prospects for water-saving agriculture

Table 1. Effect of controlled irrigation on physiological responses of field-grown grapevines





Full irrigation (FI)


Deficit irrigation (DI)


Partial root-zone drying (PRD)


Non-irrigated (NI)

Afield (µmol m–2 s–1) 16.3–10.0 13.3–11.3 14.6–8.3 12.5–3.3
gs field (mol m–2 s–1) 0.30–0.28 0.23–0.19 0.19–0.15 0.13–0.07
Acontrolled (µmol m–2 s–1) 13.3±0.5 12.0±1.1 11.5±0.9 9.5±0.9
gs controlled (mol m–2 s–1) 0.35±0.04 0.33±0.05 0.25±0.05 0.14±0.01
{Psi}pd (MPa) –0.10 to –0.18 –0.14 to –0.44 –0.14 to –0.30 –0.22 to –0.64
Sap flow (g h–1 m–2) 402–356 275–196 145–130 109–101
Berries {delta}13 C ({per thousand}) –26.3±0.17 –25.9±0.28 –23.7±0.07 –22.4±0.69
Leaf area (m2 per vine) 6.3±0.26 4.9±0.15 4.3±0.21 3.6±0.18
Exposed clusters (%)

9.8±2.8

12.9±3.2

16.8±3.5

22.8±3.8

Maximum and minimum values of leaf net photosynthetic rates (Afield) and stomatal conductance (gs field) measured at midday, from mid-June to mid-September 2000, in the grapevine cultivar Moscatel, under different irrigation treatments, FI, DI, PRD, and NI. Acontrolled and gs controlled measured under controlled conditions of light (1200 µmol m–2 s–1) and temperature (25 °C) at the end of August (mean values ± SE). Maximum and minimum values of leaf predawn water potential ({Psi}pd) for the same period as above and for sap flow measurements done during August. Discrimination of 13C in the berries, measured at harvest, in September (mean values ± SE). Leaf area per vine measured at harvest and percentage of sun-exposed cluster at maturation (mean values ± SE). (Data from Souza et al., 2003; Santos et al., 2003).


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