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Tables
- Management to reduce nitrogen losses in animal production

 

Table 1. Typical values for the annual excretion of N by various animal types expressed as percentage of body weighta

Animal type Annual N excretion, % BW

Swine
    Nursery 22
    Growing 15
    Finish 15
    Sows and litter 17
    Gestating sows 7
    Gilts 9
    Boars 6
Poultry
    Layer 30
    Pullet 23
    Broiler 40
Beef
    Stocker 11
    Feeder 11
    Cow 12
Dairy
    Cow (20 kg/d)b 18
    Cow (33 kg/d) 22
    Cow (45 kg/d) 27
    Dry cow 11
    Heifer/calves 11


aSource: Koelsch and Shapiro (1998).
bAverage daily milk production.

 

 

 


 


Table 2. Typical N losses from animal housing facilities expressed as a percentage of total N excreteda

Manure type Typical loss, % total N Range, % total N N form lostb

Poultry, high rise 50 40 to 70 NH3
Poultry, deep litter 40 20 to 70 NH3, N2O, N2
Poultry, cage and belt 10     4 to 25 NH3
Poultry, aviary 30 15 to 35 NH3, N2O
Swine, slatted floor 25 15 to 30 NH3
Swine, deep litter 50 50 to 60 NH3, N2O, N2
Swine, free range 35 25 to 40 NH3, NO3, N2, N2O
Cattle, tie stall 8     2 to 35 NH3, N2O, N2
Cattle, free stall 16 10 to 20 NH3
Cattle, bedded pack 35 25 to 40 NH3, N2O, N2
Cattle, feedlot 50 40 to 90 NH3, NO3, N2O, N2


aSummarized from Eghball and Power (1994); Groenestein and van Faassen (1996); Monteny and Erisman (1998); van Horne et al. (1998); Bierman et al. (1999); Oenema et al. (2000); Yang et al. (2000); Oenema et al. (2001b).
bN forms are listed in order of the expected quantity lost, with most of the loss being in the form of NH3.

 

 

 


 

Table 3. Typical N losses for the major types of long-term manure storage used in animal production expressed as a percentage of total N entering storagea

Manure type DM content, % Typical loss, % total N Range, % total N N form lostb

Solid heap, cattle and swine 20 20 10 to 40 NH3, NO3, N2O
Solid heap, poultry 50 10     5 to 15 NH3, NO3, N2O
Solid compost 40 40 20 to 50 NH3, NO3, N2O
Slurry tank, top loaded 10 30 20 to 35 NH3
Slurry tank, bottom loaded 10 8     5 to 10 NH3
Slurry tank, enclosed 10 4     2 to 8 NH3
Anaerobic lagoon 5 70 50 to 99 NH3, N2, N2O


aSummarized from Muck and Steenhuis (1982); Muck et al. (1984); Martins and Dewes (1992); Sommer et al. (1993); Sutton et al. (1994); Eghball et al. (1997); Sommer (1997); Petersen et al. (1998); van Horne et al. (1998); Sommer and Dahl (1999); Harper et al. (2000); Moller et al. (2000); Sommer (2001); Rodhe and Karlsson (2002).
bN forms are listed in order of the expected quantity lost, with most of the loss being in the form of NH3.

 

 

 


 


Table 4. Typical N losses for major manure application methods expressed as a percentage of the initial total N applieda

  Ammonia loss
Other N lossb
Manure type Average Range Nf1.gif N2O

  ——— ;% total N ———
Irrigated slurry 30 25 to 50 2 to 25 <1 to 4
Broadcast slurry on grassland 25 15 to 40 1 to 25 <1 to 4
Broadcast slurry on bare soil 20 10 to 27 1 to 25 <1 to 4
Broadcast of solid cattle or swine 20 8 to 60 1 to 25 <1 to 4
Broadcast of solid poultry 12 8 to 25 1 to 25 <1 to 4
Band or trailing hose of slurry 18 13 to 26 1 to 25 <1 to 4
Incorporated within 6 hours 10 6 to 13 1 to 25 <1 to 4
Shallow injection of slurry 8 7 to 12 2 to 25 <1 to 4
Deep injection of slurry 2 1 to 5 5 to 25 2 to 9
Grazing feces and urine 10 4 to 20 10 to 30 <1 to 8


aSummarized from Ball and Ryden (1984); Garwood and Ryden (1986); Ryden (1986); Jarvis et al. (1989); Sommer et al. (1991); Gangbazo et al. (1995); Sommer and Hutchings (1995); Clough et al. (1996); de Klein et al. (1996); Dosch and Gutser (1996); Rubæk et al. (1996); Cary et al. (1997); Stout et al. (1997); Beckwith et al. (1998); Leinonen et al. (1998); van Horne et al. (1998); Weslien et al. (1998); Silva et al. (1999); Meisinger and Jokelo (2000); Stout et al. (2000); Oenema et al. (2001b); Rochette et al. (2001); Di and Cameron (2002a,b,c); Rodhe and Karlsson (2002); Sherlock et al. (2002); Mattila and Joki-Tokola (2003).
bSubstantial loss of N2 can also occur through denitrification, which is not documented due to its neutral effect on the environment.
cNitrate leaching loss should be small (<5% of total N) when manure is applied to cropland in the spring, but much greater loss can be expected when manure is applied to fallow land in autumn.

 


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