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Table 1
- Magnetic resonance imaging in entomology: a critical review

Table 1 Review of the use of magnetic resonance imaging microscopy (MRM) in entomology. Studies are in vivo, unless stated otherwise.
(a) Parasitology
Host Parasite Study details Reference
Periplaneta fuliginosa
(Smoky-brown cockroach,
Blatteria: Blattellidae)
Cockroach densovirus Imaging of infected hosts Takahashi et al., 1989
Ploidia interpunctella (Indian meal moth, Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) Venturia canescens (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) Imaging of parasitoid development and behaviourImaging of host tissue degradation Chudek et al., 1996
Coccinella septempunctata (7-spot ladybird, Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) Dinocampus coccinellae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) Imaging of parasitoid larvaeIdentification of parasitoid in hostImaging of host tissue degradation Chudek et al., 1998Geoghegan et al., 2000

(b) Development Reference
Manduca sexta (Tobacco hornworm, Lepidoptera: Sphingidae) Imaging of the developing caterpillar to a resolution of 100µm Detection of motion using MRM Conner et al., 1988
Pieris brassicae (Cabbage butterfly, Lepidoptera: Pieridae) Imaging of pupal developmentSeparate determination of waster and lipid distribution by chemical shift selective imaging Goodman et al., 1995
Graphiphora augur (Double dart, Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Imaging of pupal developmentImaging of organ systemsSeparate determination of water and lipid distribution by chemical shift selective imaging Goodman et al., 1995
Spodoptera litura (Tropical armyworm, Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Imaging of larvae for technological development purposes Skibbe et al, 1995b
Bombyx mori (Silkworm, Lepidoptera, Bombicidae) Imaging of larvae and pupae during postembyonal metamorphosisImaging and characterisation of silk glands during metamorphosis Mapelli et al., 1997
Sarcophaga peregrina (Flesh fly, Diptera: Sarcophagidae) Imaging of pre-pupal and pupal developmentDevelopment of imaginal tissues Price et al., 1999
(c) Metabolism Organism Study details Reference Spodoptera litura (tropical armyworm, Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) Chemical shift imaging of pH metabolism in the midgut Skibbe et al., 1995a (d) Biomagnetism Organism Study details Reference Solenopsis invicta (fire ant, Hymenoptera, Formicidae) Imaging of ferromagnetic substances in the heads of workers, queens and males, possibly used in orientation behaviour. Slowik et al., 1997 (e) General morphology Organism Study details Reference Apis mellifera (honey bee, Hymenoptera, Apidae) Imaging of internal structures of queens and drones. Ovary, crop, midgut, spermatheca, median oviduct, sting cavity, rectum and air sacs of the queen could be identified. Tomanek et al., 1996 Dinoponera quadriceps (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) Imaging of the internal structures of an ant. The digestive tract is clearly visible. Fresneau et al., 1991 Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly, Diptera, Drosophilidae) Imaging, but images are poorly resolved. Fresneau et al., 1991 Pachycondyla apicalis, Dinoponera australis and D. quadriceps (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) Imaging of ants kept in cooling chamber, but organs poorly resolved because of organ movements and muscle contractions. In vitro imaging yields better resolution; e.g. the ovaries are clearly visible. Struyf, 1997 Sarcophaga bullata (blowfly, Diptera, Sarcophagidae) Imaging of the brains of wax-immobilized blowflies. Excellent resolution but increased post-imaging mortality. Jasanoff & Sun, 2002 Dytiscus marginalis (diving beetle, Coleoptera, Dytiscidae) In vitro imaging to attain a spatial resolution of 30µm in less than 1 hour Wecker et al., 2002

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