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The present study tested whether the spatio-temporal structure of activity was also …


Biology Articles » Ecology » Locomotor activity in common spiny mice (Acomys cahirinuse): The effect of light and environmental complexity » Tables

Tables
- Locomotor activity in common spiny mice (Acomys cahirinuse): The effect of light and environmental complexity

Table 1
Parameters of locomotion in an illuminated small arena (1 × 1 m) and large arena (2 × 2 m). For most variables, values increased when stones were added or when arena size was increased. Bonferroni adjustment of p-value was calculated by P = 0.05/10 = 0.005. Mean (± SEM) are followed by superscript numerals that indicate the significantely different test groups (as appeared in the top row) in Tukey Honest Significant Difference (HSD) test.

Small arena
Large arena




Empty (1)
4 Stones (2)
Empty (3)
4 Stones (4)
16 Stones (5)
F45;p
Level of activity






      Traveled distance (m.)
52.0 ± 9.7 2,4,5
86.7 ± 8.81
60.9 ± 9.55
90.4 ± 9.71
115.6 ± 7.31,3
8.68;
      Speed (m/sec)
0.10 ± 0.022,3,5
0.15 ± 0.041,5
0.12 ± 0.024,5
0.18 ± 0.021,3,5
0.36 ± 0.121–4
5.68; = 0.0012
Temporal Structure






      Stops
87.0 ± 31.42,4,5
228.6 ± 55.71,3,4
51.2 ± 13.92,4,5
146.9 ± 23.9 1–5
235.8 ± 48.6 1,3,4
7.15; = 0.0002
      # of trips
18.5 ± 5.52,4,5
41.4 ± 11.01,3
12.2 ± 5.02,4,5
38.5 ± 7.81,2,5
74.7 ± 25.21,3,4
5.81; = 0.001
      Stops/trip
5.0 ± 0.6
5.6 ± 0.4
5.5 ± 1.2
4.4 ± 0.6
3.6 ± 0.3
0.95; ns
      Trip length
4.9 ± 1.43,5
2.4 ± 0.43
10.2 ± 2.31,2,4,5
3.1 ± 0.63,5
2.0 ± 0.31,3,4
5.88; = 0.0009
      Inter-stop distance (m.)
0.94 ± 0.22
0.43 ± 0.06
2.68 ± .1.14
0.70 ± 0.09
0.54 ± 0.06
2.51;ns
Spatial Distribution






      Center stops (%)
9.3 ± 1.52–5
22.6 ± 4.91,5
55.5 ± 30.81
20.3 ± 1.91,5
41.7 ± 2.81,2,4
3.08; = 0.0277
      Center time (%)
2.4 ± 1.12,4,5
19.2 ± 6.11,3
2.4 ± 1.12,4,5
12.8 ± 3.91,3,5
25.5 ± 7.11,3,4
8.99;
      Meander (deg/m)
-1.87 ± 0.312
-0.99 ± 0.362
-1.52 ± 0.194,5
-0.60 ± 0.163,5
-0.46 ± 0.093,4
7.68;
Table 2
Parameters of locomotion in a dark large arena (2 × 2 m). As shown, level of activity was not affected, whereas the spatiotemporal structure underwent significant changes. Bonferroni adjustment of p-value was calculated by P = 0.05/10 = 0.005. Mean (± SEM) are followed by the results of Tukey HSD test, indicating the numbers of the significantely different test groups (as appeared in the top row).

Empty (1)
4 Stones (2)
16 Stones (3)
F18;p
Level of activity




      Traveled distance (m.)
116.51 ± 7.52
110.17 ± 11.58
99.09 ± 10.38
0.91; ns
      Speed (m/sec)
0.21 ± 0.02
0.21 ± 0.02
0.20 ± 0.01
0.24; ns
Temporal Structure




      Stops
159.1 ± 18.23
185.6 ± 9.43
322.7 ± 32.01,2
18.67; .0004
      # of trips
40.14 ± 5.532,3
62.57 ± 3.261,3
134.14 ± 13.971,2
36.68; 0.000001
      Stops/trip
4.04 ± 0.232,3
3.01 ± 0.231,3
2.41 ± 0.041,2
21.20; 0.00019
      Trip length (m.)
3.08 ± 0.262,3
1.81 ± 0.251,3
0.74 ± 0.041,2
36.41;0.00000
      Inter-stop distance (m.)
0.77 ± 0.072,3
0.59 ± 0.051,3
0.31 ± 0.011,2
26.75;
Spatial Distribution




      Center stops (%)
25.8 ± 1.32,3
49.8 ± 4.81,2
70.0 ± 1.01,2
66.09; 0.00000
      Center time (%)
29.3 ± 4.22,3
53.4 ± 6.01
57.7 ± 3.61
11.58; 0.00058
      Meander
-0.44 ± 0.031,2
-0.33 ± 0.021,3
-0.29 ± 0.051,2
7.10; 0.0053
Table 3
Formal summary of the results shown in Tables 1 and 2.


 
 
Dark vs. light
 
 
With lights on

 
With lights off


 
 
 
 
 
 
Level of activity
Distance traveled and speed
 
 
Longer distances
 
 
Increase with stone density
 
 
Remains high
Temporal structure
# of stops and trips
 
 
More stops and trips
 
 
More stones = more stops and trips
 
 


Trip length
 
 
Shorter trips
 
 
More stones = sorter trips
 
 


Stops/trip
 
 
Fewer stops/trip
 
 
Did not change
 
 
Decreased
Spatial distribution
Path shape
 
 
Winding (zigzag) paths
 
 
More stones = straighter path
 
 


Time and stops at the perimeter
 
 
More time and stops in center
 
 
More stones = more time and stops in center
 
 

Table 4
Parameters of locomotion that were measured for each spiny mouse.
Behavior
Description
Level of activity
Distance traveled
Overall distance (m.) that a spiny mouse traveled during the 10-min observation.
Traveling speed
Overall traveled distance divided by the duration of locomoting periods (m/sec).
Temporal organization
Number of stops
Incidence of "non-locomoting" intervals (stops), bounded by locomotion.
Number of trips
Trips are intervals between consecutive stops at the home base, which is the place with the highest rank among zones according to the accumulated "non-locomoting" intervals. Thus, a trip comprised progression out from home base through consecutive stops in the arena, until returning to the home base.
Stops/trip
Number of stops taken between two successive visits to the home base (= total number of stops divided by the total number of trips).
Trip length
Metric distance traveled in a round-trip to the home base (total distance divided by the total number of trips).
Inter-stops distance
The metric distance traveled between two consecutive stops (or, distance traveled in a "locomoting" interval = distance divided by number of stops).
Spatial distribution
Time spent along the perimeter (%)
Calculated as percentage of the total time, in order to show how long spiny mice stayed at the vicinity of the walls of the arena, compared with the time spent in the center of the arena or near/on the stones.
Stops along the perimeter (%)
Calculated as percentage of the total stops, in order to show how many stops took place along the vicinity of the walls of the arena, compared with stopping in the center of the arena or at/on the stones.
Meander
The rate of change in direction of progression relative to the distance traveled, calculated automatically by Ethovision for each two successive time points by dividing the turn angle by the distance. Mean meander of each spiny mouse was used to calculate the mean of each group. + indicated a clockwise change in direction of progression, whereas - indicated a counterclockwise change. Thus, lower absolute (+ or -) meander values characterize locomotion along relatively straight trajectories, and higher meander absolute values describe circular or winding trajectories. It should be noted that meander is sensitive to tracking rate, animal size, and arena size. Therefore, meander may be compared only for the same animal size, same resolution, and same arena size.

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