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This Botanical Briefing reviews how the integration of palaeontology, geochemistry and developmental …


Biology Articles » Evolutionary Biology » Leaf Evolution: Gases, Genes and Geochemistry » Figures

Figures
- Leaf Evolution: Gases, Genes and Geochemistry

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FIG. 1. Stages in the evolution of the megaphyll as documented by Zimmermann's telome theory (Zimmermann, 1930Go), with representative fossil plants for each stage illustrated below. Upper schematic: Osborne et al. (2004b)Go, images of Rhynia, Psilophyton and Archaeopteris after Gifford and Foster (1988)Go, image of Actinoxylon after Matten (1968)Go.

figure 1

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FIG. 2. Evolution of the atmosphere and land plants in the late Palaeozoic. (A) Changes in atmospheric CO2, modelled (open circles) or reconstructed from fossil soils (closed). (B) Observed increase in maximum width of megaphylls. Points indicate average maximum size for 5- or 10-Myr intervals. (C) Maximum plant height calculated from measurements of fossil stem diameter, assuming modern stem diameter–height relationships. (D) Changes in terrestrial carbon burial. Modified after Beerling and Berner (2005)Go.

figure 2

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FIG. 3. Systems analysis diagrams of the long-term carbon cycle with and without geophysiological feedbacks involving land plants. (A) The inorganic geochemical carbon cycle. (B and C) Geophysiological feedbacks introduced by plant evolutionary responses to changes in atmospheric CO2 that result in changes in silicate rock weathering and organic carbon burial, respectively. (D and E) Geophysiological feedbacks as in B and C but including the direct effects of CO2 on climate via the atmospheric greenhouse effect. Arrows originate at causes and end at effects. Blue, inorganic processes; green, organic processes.

figure 3

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FIG. 4. Tropical weathering by deep-rooting trees on Kohala Mountain, Hawaii. The image shows the weathering ‘halo’ around the roots caused by mineral depletion. Depth of roots is approx. 7 m. Photograph courtesy of Carl Bowser. Reprinted from Berner et al. (Treatise on Geochemistry 5, p. 170; ©2003, with permission from Elsevier).

figure 4

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Annals of Botany 2005 96 (3):345-352. © The Author 2005. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company.


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