Joint axes of rotation and body segment parameters of pig limbs
Vivi M Thorup1,2, Frede Aa Tøgersen3, Bente Jørgensen1 and Bente R Jensen2
1Department of Animal Health, Welfare and Nutrition, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Aarhus, Research Centre Foulum, Blichers Allé 20, PO Box 50, DK-8830 Tjele, Denmark
2Department of Exercise and Sport Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Copenhagen, Panum Institute/IFI, Blegdamsvej 3, DK-2200 Copenhagen N, Denmark
3Department of Genetics and Biotechnology, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Aarhus, Research Centre Foulum, Blichers Allé 20, PO Box 50, DK-8830 Tjele, Denmark
To enable a quantification of net joint moments and joint reaction forces, indicators of joint loading, this study aimed to locate the mediolateral joint axes of rotation and establish the body segment parameters of the limbs of pigs (Sus scrofa). To locate the joint axes of rotation the scapulohumeral, humeroradial, carpal complex, metacarpophalangeal, coxofemoral, femorotibial, tarsal, and metatarsophalangeal joints from 12 carcasses were studied. The joints were photographed in three positions, bisecting lines drawn at fixed landmarks with their intersection marking the joint axes of rotation. The body segment parameters, i.e. the segment mass, center of mass and moment of inertia were measured on the humerus, radius/ulna, metacarpus, forepastern, foretoe, femur, tibia, metatarsus, hindpastern, and hindtoe segments from five carcasses. The segments were weighed, and their center of mass was found by balancing them. The moments of inertia of the humerus, radius/ulna, femur and tibia were found by rotating the segments. The moments of inertia of the remaining segments were calculated. Generally, the joint axes of rotation were near the attachment site of the lateral collateral ligaments. The forelimb, with segments taken as one, was significantly lighter and shorter than the hindlimb (P
Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 2007, 49:20. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License.