Impacts of the construction of the Port of Suape on phytoplankton in the Ipojuca River estuary (Pernambuco-Brazil)
Maria Luise KoeningI; Enide Eskinazi LeçaII; Sigrid Neumann-LeitãoI; Silvio José de MacêdoI
IDepartment of Oceanography; Federal University of Pernambuco; Av. Arquitetura s/n; Cidade Universitária; 50.670-901; Recife - Pernambuco - Brazil
IIDepartment of Biology; Federal Rural University of Pernambuco; Rua Dom Manuel de Medeiros s/n; Dois Irmãos; 50171-030; Recife - Pernambuco - Brazil
In order to address the impact on phytoplankton, sampling was conducted monthly at 4 fixed stations, from April/86 to March/87 at diurnal low and high tide using a plankton net (65 mm mesh size) and a 1 L Van Dorn bottle. Among the 133 taxa identified, marine littoral euryhaline species were most common, outranking Gyrosigma balticum (Ehrenberg) Rabenhorst, Nitzschia sigma (Kützing) Wm. Smith, Licmophora abbreviata Agardh, Climacosphenia moniligera Ehrenberg, Surirella febigerii Lewis, Terpsinoe musica Ehrenberg and Cylindrotheca closterium (Ehrenberg) Reiman and Lewis. The port construction caused significant changes to the phytoplankton community with a strong influence of marine species (mainly dinoflagellate) because of the opening of the reef near the river mouth in 1983. The shallow depth and hydrodynamic brought many littoral species to the water columm. The community was composed by marine euryhaline and limnetic organisms, influenced by the salinity, rain and tide. Species diversity was high (> 3 bits.cel-1) owing to the high environmental heterogeneity (marine, freshwater and benthic interactions). After the port implantation, a strong decrease occurred in phytoplankton density owing to high loads of suspended matter. Lowest values (121,00 cells.l-1) were registered during rainy season. During dry season, when light intensity was higher, phytoplankton presented highest density ( 1,789,000 cells.l-1).
Key words: Phytoplankton, environmental impacts, estuary, Suape Port
Braz. arch. biol. technol. vol.46 no.1 Curitiba Jan. 2003. Open Access Article.