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Biology Articles » Zoology » Zoopathology » The impact of elbow and knee joint lesions on abnormal gait and posture of sows » Results

Results
- The impact of elbow and knee joint lesions on abnormal gait and posture of sows

Joint lesions were observed more often in the elbow joint compared to the knee joint (Tables 1 and 2). The most frequent lesion in the elbow joint was erosion of the articular cartilage, in particular on the medial humeral condyle (left side 95%, and right side 84%). Also ulceration (left side 18%, right side 10%) and repair (left side 13%, right side 16%) of the articular cartilage of the medial humeral condyle, as well as formation of marginal osteophytes of processus anconeus (left side 14%, right side 16%) of ulna were often observed. In the knee joint, erosion (left side 15%, right side 42%) and ulceration (left side 10%, right side 6%) of the articular cartilage of the medial femoral condyle were noted as the most frequent lesions.

Table 1. Number of certain lesions in left and right elbow of 60 sows.

Table 2. Number of certain lesions in left and right knee joints of 60 sows.

Because a significant correlation between similar lesions of the left and the right side (from r = 0.25 to r = 0.71) was found, the two sides were subsequently pooled.

The mutual correlations between lesions within the joints (Tables 3 and 4) showed a strong correlation between erosions in the lateral condyle of humerus and cartilage erosion of incisura trochlearis on ulna (P < 0.001) and between erosions in the lateral condyle of humerus and marginal osteophytes on the processus anconeus of ulna (P < 0.001). However, no correlations were seen between the same types of lesions in the medial condyle of humerus. Also a strong correlation between cartilage erosion of fovea capitis on radius and cartilage erosion of incisura trochlearis on ulna was observed (P < 0.001). In the knee joints a strong correlation between erosion and ulceration in the medial condyle of femur was registered (P < 0.01).

Table 3. Correlation (r) between joint lesions within the elbow joint.

Table 4. Correlation (r) between joint lesions within the knee joint. .

The scorings of the variable 'stiff in rear' and 'swaying hindquarters' showed that 44% and 39% of scorings, respectively, were between 3 and 5 (Fig. 3).

Figure 3 Frequency distribution of scorings (from 2 to 9 times/sow) of gait and posture variables in 60 sows. Score from 1 (normal) to 5 (severe).

The highest degree of positive associations were between 'hind legs turned out' and repair of the articular cartilage of the medial femoral condyle (P < 0.001) and with marginal osteophytes of the fovea capitis on radius (P < 0.01), and 'weak pasterns forelegs' and with marginal osteophytes of the fovea capitis on radius (P < 0.001) (Tables 5 and 6). 'Forelegs turned out' were positively associated with erosions of incisura trochlearis on ulna (P < 0.05). Moreover, significantly positive associations between 'stiff in front and in rear' and ulceration of the cartilage of the lateral humeral condyle were observed (P < 0.05). Significantly negative associations were found between 'weak pasterns on forelegs' and cartilage ulceration of the medial humeral condyle (P < 0.05) and cartilage infoldings of the medial femoral condyle that were verified to be of osteochondrotic origin (P < 0.01). A negative association was also found between 'stiff in rear' and cartilage erosion of radius (P < 0.05) and cartilage ulceration of the medial femoral condyle (P < 0.01).

Table 5. Association (regression coefficients) between gait, posture (the maximal scores over time for each sow were used) and lesions in the elbow joint. .

Table 6. Association (regression coefficients) between gait, posture (the maximal scores over time for each sow were used) and lesions in the knee joint.

Associations to the first and the last scoring were examined, too, but did not influence the results. No significant effect of parity was found.


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