Immune-mediated changes in actinic keratosis following topical treatment with imiquimod 5% cream
Abel Torres1, Leslie Storey1, Makala Anders1, Richard L Miller2, Barbara J Bulbulian2, Jizhong Jin2, Shalini Raghavan2, James Lee3, Herbert B Slade3 and Woubalem Birmachu2
1Dermatology Office, Loma Linda University Medical Center, Loma Linda, California, USA
2Pharmacology, 3M Pharmaceuticals, St Paul, Minnesota, USA
3Medical & Scientific Affairs, 3M Pharmaceuticals, St Paul, Minnesota, USA
The objective of this study was to identify the molecular processes responsible for the anti-lesional activity of imiquimod in subjects with actinic keratosis using global gene expression profiling.
A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study was conducted to evaluate gene expression changes in actinic keratosis treated with imiquimod 5% cream. Male subjects (N = 17) with ≥ 5 actinic keratosis on the scalp applied placebo cream or imiquimod 3 times a week on nonconsecutive days for 4 weeks. To elucidate the molecular processes involved in actinic keratosis lesion regression by imiquimod, gene expression analysis using oligonucleotide arrays and real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction were performed on shave biopsies of lesions taken before and after treatment.
Imiquimod modulated the expression of a large number of genes important in both the innate and adaptive immune response, including increased expression of interferon-inducible genes with known antiviral, anti-proliferative and immune modulatory activity, as well as various Toll-like receptors. In addition, imiquimod increased the expression of genes associated with activation of macrophages, dendritic cells, cytotoxic T cells, and natural killer cells, as well as activation of apoptotic pathways.
Data suggest that topical application of imiquimod stimulates cells in the skin to secrete cytokines and chemokines that lead to inflammatory cell influx into the lesions and subsequent apoptotic and immune cell-mediated destruction of lesions.
Journal of Translational Medicine 2007, 5:7. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License.