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The projected climatic changes in the Arctic, particularly the projected decrease in …

Biology Articles » Biodiversity » Human impacts on the biodiversity of the Arctic » Figures

- Human impacts on the biodiversity of the Arctic

mcith_250px01.gif Figure 10.6 The reef-forming deep-sea coral, Lophelia pertusa (white coral, upper left hand corner), occurs on the continental shelf and shelf break off the northwest European coast. The red gorgonian, Paragorgia arborea, occurs on these reefs. The brittle star, Gorgonocephalus caputmedusae (yellow, center), frequently occurs on top of the gorgonians to take advantage of stronger currents. (Photo: CAFF, 2001; reproduced with permission from CAFF, Iceland).

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mcith_250px03.gif Figure 10.7  Fragments and larger pieces of dead coral, Lophelia pertusa, from a trawling ground on the Norwegian continental shelf at a depth of about 190 m. The benthic communities have been severely disturbed and are virtually devoid of larger animals. (Photo: CAFF, 2001; reproduced with permission from CAFF, Iceland).

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mcith_250px04.gif Figure 10.8 In Norwegian Finnmark the number of reindeer trebled between 1950 and 1989 resulting in extensive overgrazing of the vegetation. The ground to the left and above the fence had been overgrazed, while that to the right and in the foreground had been protected from grazing. Note the presence of shrubs and the green nature of the herbaceous ground cover. (Source: Hallanaro and Pylvänäinen, 2002[1]; reproduced with permission from Georg Bangjord, Statens Naturoppsyn, Norway).

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mcith_250px05.gif Figure 10.9 Changes in grazing pressure in Finnmarksvidda, northern Norway, between 1973 and 1996. The increase in areas of lichen communities assessed as being overgrazed rises from none in 1973 to approximately two-thirds of the area in 1996. (Source: Hallanaro and Pylvänäinen, 2002[2]; reproduced with permission from The Nordic Council of Ministers, Denmark).

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