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Motor problems, often characterised as clumsiness or poor motor coordination, have been …


Biology Articles » Neurobiology » Cognitive Neurobiology » Fine motor skills in South African children with symptoms of ADHD: influence of subtype, gender, age, and hand dominance » Tables

Tables
- Fine motor skills in South African children with symptoms of ADHD: influence of subtype, gender, age, and hand dominance

Table 1
Sample characteristics
Subtype
Afrikaans
Northern Sotho
Tsonga
Venda
North Ndebele
Tswana
Bolobedu
Total
ADHD-HI








Boys








6–9 yr
6
5
1
2
1
3
5
23
10–13 yr
3
2
0
4
4
9
6
30
Girls








6–9 yr
1
2
3
4
1
1
1
13
10–13 yr
2
1
2
0
1
0
2
8
ADHD-PI








Boys








6–9 yr
4
1
5
10
6
3
4
33
10–13 yr
4
3
3
5
3
2
8
28
Girls








6–9 yr
1
4
3
1
1
1
2
13
10–13 yr
1
2
5
3
2
4
3
20
ADHD-C








Boys








6–9 yr
3
7
8
5
4
4
6
37
10–13 yr
4
6
7
6
4
6
5
38
Girls








6–9 yr
3
2
1
2
2
1
2
13
10–13 yr
0
4
1
0
0
2
1
8
Non-ADHD








Boys








6–9 yr
13
13
14
17
11
10
15
93
10–13 yr
13
11
10
15
11
17
19
96
Girls








6–9 yr
5
8
7
7
4
3
4
38
10–13 yr
3
7
8
3
3
6
7
37
Total
68
78
78
84
58
72
90
528
Table 2
Results from repeated measures ANOVA
Measure
Variable
ANOVA



Gender
Age
Grooved Pegboard

Df
F
F

ADHD Subtype
3, 512
14. 270***
40.936***

Gender/Age
1, 512
2895.916***
105.042***

Gender/Age × Subtype
3, 512
30.504**
5.216**

Dominance
1, 512
47. 812***
0.308

Dominance × Gender/Age
1, 512
0.328
0.206

Dom × Subtype
3, 512
4. 790**
3.290*

Dom × Gender/Age × Subtype
3, 512
2.285
3.373*
Maze Coordination





ADHD Subtype
3, 516
26.006***
37.571***

Gender/Age
1, 516
13.694***
75.464***

Gender/Age × Subtype
3, 516
1.672
2.244

Dominance
1, 516
198.165***
0.050

Dominance × Gender/Age
1, 516
0.045
0.055

Dom × Subtype
3, 516
1.134
3.122*

Dom × Gender/Age × Subtype
3, 516
0.414
2.729*
Finger Tapping





ADHD Subtype
3, 475
0.437
0.069

Gender/Age
1, 475
2.584
19.961***

Gender/Age × Subtype
3, 475
3.088*
1.596

Dominance
1, 475
61.979***
0.304

Dominance × Gender/Age
1, 475
8.290**
2.581

Dom × Subtype
3, 475
0.589
0.493

Dom × Gender/Age × Subtype
3, 475
1.572
0.120
*p ** p *** p
Table 3
Comparing ADHD subtypes with non-ADHD groups

ADHD-HI
ADHD-PI
ADHD-C
Gender groups
Measure
Boys
Girls
Boys
Girls
Boys
Girls
Pegboard






Dom. hand
n/s
0.006**
n/s
n/s
0.001**
0.002**
Non-dom.
n/s
n/s
n/s
n/s
0.000***
0.000***
Maze






Dom. hand
n/s
0.037*
0.003**
0.032*
0.004**
0.000***
Non-dom.
n/s
n/s
n/s
n/s
0.04*
0.04*
Age groups
Measure
6 – 9
10 – 13
6 – 9
10 – 13
6 – 9
10 – 13
Pegboard






Dom. hand
0.000***
n/s
n/s
n/s
0.000***
0.008**
Non-dom.
0.032*
n/s
n/s
n/s
0.000***
0.008**
Maze






Dom. hand
n/s
n/s
0.000***
n/s
0.000***
n/s
Non-dom.
0.000***
n/s
0.04*
n/s
0.001**
n/s
*p ** p *** p With Bonferroni corrections.
There were no significant differences when the ADHD subtypes were compared with each other, with one exception: The performance with the non-dominant hand on the Grooved Pegboard of the younger ADHD-PI subtype differed significantly from the ADHD-C subtype (p = 0.03)

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