A fast Ca(2+)-induced Ca(2+)-release mechanism in Dictyostelium discoideum
Malchow D, Lusche DF, De Lozanne A, Schlatterer C
Department of Biology, University of Konstanz, P.O. Box 5560, D-78457 Konstanz, Germany
In vertebrate cells calcium-induced calcium release (CICR) is thought to be responsible for rapid cytosolic Ca(2+) elevations despite the occurrence of strong Ca(2+) buffering within the cytosol. In Dictyostelium, a CICR mechanism has not been reported. While analyzing Ca(2+) regulation in a vesicular fraction of Dictyostelium rich in Ca(2+)-flux activity, containing contractile vacuoles (CV) as the main component of acidic Ca(2+) stores and ER, we detected a rapid Ca(2+) change upon addition of Ca(2+) (CIC). CIC was three times larger in active stores accumulating Ca(2+) than before Ca(2+) uptake and in inactivated stores. Ca(2+) release was demonstrated with the calmodulin antagonist W7 that inhibits the V-type H(+)ATPase activity and Ca(2+) uptake of acidic Ca(2+) stores. W7 caused a rapid and large increase of extravesicular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)](e)), much faster and larger than thapsigargin (Tg), a Ca(2+)-uptake inhibitor of the ER. W7 treatment blocked CIC indicating that a large part of CIC is due to Ca(2+) release. The height of CIC depended on the filling state of the Ca(2+) stores. CIC was virtually unchanged in the iplA(-) strain that lacks a putative IP(3) or ryanodine receptor thought to be located at the endoplasmic reticulum. By contrast, CIC was reduced in two mutants, HGR8 and lvsA(-), that are impaired in acidic Ca(2+)-store function. Purified Ca(2+) stores enriched in CV still displayed CIC, indicating that CV are a source of Ca(2+)-induced Ca(2+) release. CIC-defective mutants were altered in their oscillatory properties. The irregularity of the HGR8 oscillation suggests that the principal oscillator is affected in this mutant.
Cell Calcium. 2007 Sep 11.