Login

Join for Free!
119240 members
table of contents table of contents

Zonocerus variegatus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Orthoptera: Pyrgomorphidae) is known as an agricultural pest in …


Biology Articles » Agriculture » Farmers' perception on the importance of variegated grasshopper (Zonocerus variegatus (L.)) in the agricultural production systems of the humid forest zone of Southern Cameroon » Tables

Tables
- Farmers' perception on the importance of variegated grasshopper (Zonocerus variegatus (L.)) in the agricultural production systems of the humid forest zone of Southern Cameroon

Tables

Table 1

Relative importance (%) of the main insect pests on annual and perennial crops in the humid forest zone of Southern – Cameroon.

All

Crops
AECD-Blocks
Termites
Borers
Caterpillars (Without Borers)
Aphids
Mirids
Scales Insects
Variegated grasshopper
Bugs (Without Mirids)
p-value

Annual crops
Yaounde
9
16
9
10
6
19
16
14
<0.001

Mbalmayo
2
21
10
9
7
22
16
13
<0.0001

Ebolowa
4
22
12
13
5
17
14
15
<0.0001

p-value
<0.05
NS
NS
NS
NS
NS
NS
NS


Mean
5
20
10
11
6
20
15
14
<0.0001

Young Perennial Crops
Yaoundé
14
14
12
11
21
18
7
5
<0.01

Mbalmayo
1
19
19
10
28
13
8
2
<0.0001

Ebolowa
3
22
14
14
28
5
11
4
<0.0001

p-value
<0.001
NS
NS
NS
NS
<0.05
NS
NS


Mean
6
18
15
11
25
12
9
4
<0.0001

Female

Annual crops
Yaounde
11
16
9
13
9
19
12
14
NS

Mbalmayo
3
21
10
12
9
22
12
13
0.0386

Ebolowa
5
22
11
14
3
17
14
16
0.0236

p-value
NS
NS
NS
NS
NS
NS
NS
NS


Mean
6
19
10
13
7
19
12
14
<0.0001

Young Perennial Crops
Yaoundé
14
15
7
14
18
23
3
11
NS

Mbalmayo
2
21
19
10
29
14
2
5
0.0005

Ebolowa
4
21
15
15
22
7
13
4
NS

p-value
NS
NS
NS
NS
NS
NS
NS
NS


Mean
7
19
14
13
23
15
6
6
<0.0001

Male

Annual crops
Yaounde
7
17
10
8
3
20
21
15
0.0072

Mbalmayo
2
21
10
7
6
23
20
13
0.0003

Ebolowa
3
23
13
12
7
17
14
14
0.0002

p-value
NS
NS
NS
NS
NS
NS
NS
NS


Mean
4
20
11
9
5
20
18
14
<0.0001

Young Perennial Crops
Yaoundé
14
13
16
8
24
13
11
3
0.0404

Mbalmayo
0
18
19
10
27
13
12
2
0.0007

Ebolowa
3
24
13
12
33
2
10
4
0.0006

p-value
0.008
NS
NS
NS
NS
NS
NS
NS


Mean
6
18
16
10
28
9
11
3
<0.0001

The values are averages of the scores for 10 groups (5 male and 5 female groups) of farmers interviewed per block; p-value is the significance levels of a non parametric test of Kruskal-Wallis; NS = no significant (p > 0.05). AECD-Blocks = Agro-Ecological, Cultural and Demographic Blocks.

Kekeunou et al. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 2006 2:17 doi:10.1186/1746-4269-2-17

Table 2

Food sources of Zonocerus variegatus among the annual and perennial crops in the humid forest of Southern Cameroon.

All

Crops
AECD-Blocks
General feeder (Polyphagous)
Oligophagous
Monophagous
No crop attacked
Absent in the village

Annual crops
Yaounde
60
40
0
0
0

Mbalmayo
70
30
0
0
0

Ebolowa
70
30
0
0
0

Mean
67
33
0
0
0

Young Perennial Crop
Yaounde
20
20
10
50
0

Mbalmayo
20
20
10
50
0

Ebolowa
30
50
0
20
0

Mean
23
30
7
40
0

Female

Annual crops
Yaounde
60
40
0
0
0

Mbalmayo
60
40
0
0
0

Ebolowa
60
40
0
0
0

Mean
60
40
0
0
0

Young Perennial Crop
Yaounde
20
0
0
80
0

Mbalmayo
40
0
0
60
0

Ebolowa
40
40
0
20
0

Mean
33
13
0
53
0

Male

Annual crops
Yaounde
60
40
0
0
0

Mbalmayo
80
20
0
0
0

Ebolowa
80
20
0
0
0

Mean
73
27
0
0
0

Young Perennial Crop
Yaounde
20
40
20
20
0

Mbalmayo
0
40
20
40
0

Ebolowa
20
60
0
40
0

Mean
13
47
13
33
0

The values are averages of the scores for 10 groups of farmers (5 male and 5 female groups) interviewed per block; AECD-Blocks = Agro-Ecological, Cultural and Demographic Blocks

Kekeunou et al. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 2006 2:17 doi:10.1186/1746-4269-2-17

Table 3

Reasons for the increase incidence of Zonocerus variegatus in crop fields in the humid forest zone of Southern Cameroon.


All
Female
Male

Reasons
Ydé
Mbyo
Ebwa
Means
Ydé
Mbyo
Ebwa
Means
Ydé
Mbyo
Ebwa
Means

Increased surfaces of herbaceous and C. odorata fallows
50
90
80
73
40
80
80
67
60
100
80
80
Deforestation
60
60
60
60
40
60
60
53
80
60
60
67
High reproductive rate of Z. variegatus
20
80
20
40
0
80
0
27
40
80
40
53
Lack, suppression or reduction of control measures against Z. variegatus
30
20
20
23
20
0
0
7
40
40
40
40
Increased food host range of Z. variegatus
40
20
10
23
60
20
0
27
20
20
20
20
Absence, suppression or reduction of human consumption of Z. variegatus
10
10
10
10
0
0
0
0
20
20
20
20
Wide colonization of the fields by weeds
10
0
10
7
0
0
0
0
20
0
20
13
Increase sun shine levels
10
20
10
13
0
20
20
13
20
20
0
7
Favorable climatic conditions
0
20
30
17
0
20
40
20
0
20
20
13
Change of the crop types
10
0
0
3
20
0
0
7
20
0
0
7
Reduction of spaces in sugar cane crop
10
0
10
7
20
0
0
7
0
0
20
7
Climatic changes
20
20
30
23
0
20
20
13
40
20
20
27
Presence of cassava
0
10
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
20
0
7
Possible change of the species of Z. variegatus
10
0
0
3
20
0
0
7
0
0
0
0

The values (% of answer) are averages for 10 groups of farmers (5 male and 5 female groups) interviewed per block. AECD-Blocks = Agro-Ecological, Cultural and Demographic Blocks. Ydé : Yaoundé, Mbyo: Mbalmayo, Ebwa: Ebolowa.

Kekeunou et al. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 2006 2:17 doi:10.1186/1746-4269-2-17

Table 4

Relative importance (%) of Zonocerus variegatus pressure in different fields types in the humid forest zone of Southern Cameroon.

All

AECD-Blocks
Affub owondo
Affub bidi
Assan
Essep
Garden crops
Young perennial crop
p-value

Yaounde
10
34
21
9
20
5
<0.0001
Mbalmayo
31
28
9
5
17
9
<0.0001
Ebolowa
19
28
20
12
7
14
<0.001
p-value
<0.01
NS
<0.05
NS
<0.05
NS

Means
20
30
17
9
15
9
<0.0001
Female
Yaounde
11
38
21
9
17
3
0.0121
Mbalmayo
29
21
12
8
25
5
0.0021
Ebolowa
20
28
22
9
5
16
0.0346
p-value
NS
NS
NS
NS
0.0380
NS

Means
20
29
18
9
16
8
0.0001
Male
Yaounde
10
31
21
9
22
7
0.0029
Mbalmayo
33
36
6
3
10
12
0.0010
Ebolowa
19
28
19
15
9
11
0.0175
p-value
0.0209
NS
0.0220
NS
0.0422
NS

Means
21
32
15
9
14
10
<0.0001

The values are averages of the scores for 10 groups of farmers (5 male and 5 female groups) interviewed per block. Affub owondo is Grandnut' field. Essep is dry season' fields. Assan is marsh' fields. p-value is the significance levels of a non parametric test of Kruskal-Wallis; NS = nonsignificant (p > 0.05). AECD-Blocks = Agro-Ecological, Cultural and Demographic Blocks.

Kekeunou et al. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 2006 2:17 doi:10.1186/1746-4269-2-17

Table 5

Influence of age of the pre-farming fallow on the pressure (%) of Zonocerus variegatusin crop fields established at the same site.

All

AECD-Blocks
Fallow of 1 -5 years
Fallow of 5 -10 years
Fallow > 10 years
p-value

Yaounde
39
31
30
NS
Mbalmayo
40
30
30
NS
Ebolowa
33
33
33
NS
p-value
NS
NS
NS

Means
37
32
31
NS
Female
Yaounde
33
33
33
NS
Mbalmayo
47
27
27
NS
Ebolowa
33
33
33
NS
p-value
NS
NS
NS

Means
38
31
31
NS
Male
Yaounde
44
29
27
NS
Mbalmayo
33
33
33
NS
Ebolowa
33
33
33
NS
p-value
NS
NS
NS

Means
37
32
31
NS

The values are averages of the scores for 10 groups of farmers (5 male and 5 female groups) interviewed per AECD-Blocks; p-value is the significance levels of a non parametric test of Kruskal-Wallis ; NS = nonsignificant (p > 0.05); AECD-Blocks = Agro-Ecological, Cultural and Demographic Blocks.

Kekeunou et al. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 2006 2:17 doi:10.1186/1746-4269-2-17

Table 6

Influence of fallow types on Zonocerus variegatus pressure (%) in adjacent crop fields in the humid forest zones of Southern Cameroon

All

AECD-Blocks
C.odoratafallow
Herbaceous fallows
Shrubs fallow
Forest
p-value

Yaounde
52
35
10
5
<0.0001
Mbalmayo
44
40
11
7
<0.0001
Ebolowa
51
39
9
2
<0.0001
p-value
NS
NS
NS
NS

Means
49
38
10
4
<0.0001
Female
Yaounde
54
29
10
7
0.0052
Mbalmayo
45
40
10
5
0.0024
Ebolowa
50
43
7
0
0.0007
p-value
NS
NS
NS
NS

Means
50
37
9
40
<0.0001
Male
Yaounde
49
40
9
2
0.0007
Mbalmayo
42
39
11
8
0.0037
Ebolowa
51
34
11
4
0.0010
p-value
NS
NS
NS
NS

Means
47
38
10
5
<0.0001

The values are averages of the scores for 10 groups of farmers (5 male and 5 female groups) interviewed per AECD-Blocks; p-value is the significance levels of a non parametric test of Kruskal-Wallis NS = nonsignificant (p > 0.05); AECD-Blocks = Agro-Ecological, Cultural and Demographic Blocks.

Kekeunou et al. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 2006 2:17 doi:10.1186/1746-4269-2-17

Table 7

Influence of season on the population pressure (%) of Zonocerus variegatus on annual and perennial crops in the humidforest zones of Southern Cameroon.

Crops
AECD-Blocks
Long dry season
Short rainy season
Short dry season
Long rainy season
p-value

Annual Crop
Yaoundé
72
4
16
9
<0.0001

Mbalmayo
70
7
11
13
<0.0001

Ebolowa
64
10
27
0
<0.0001

p-value
NS
NS
NS
NS


Means
69
7
18
7
<0.0001

Young Perennial Crops
Yaoundé
25
3
12
1
<0.05

Mbalmayo
36
5
10
10
<0.05

Ebolowa
63
9
29
0
<0.0001

p-value
<0.05
NS
<0.05
NS


Means
41
5
17
4
<0.0001

Female

Annual Crop
Yaoundé
76
1
13
10
0.0054

Mbalmayo
68
5
12
15
0.0071

Ebolowa
67
9
24
0
0.0015

p-value
NS
NS
NS
NS


Means
69
5
16
8
<0.0001

Young Perennial Crops
Yaoundé
15
0
5
0
NS

Mbalmayo
31
6
13
10
NS

Ebolowa
69
4
27
0
0.0017

p-value
NS
NS
NS
NS


Means
38
3
15
3
0.0014

Male

Annual Crop
Yaoundé
68
6
19
7
0.0061

Mbalmayo
72
9
9
10
0.0080

Ebolowa
61
10
29
0
0.0015

p-value
NS
NS
NS
NS


Means
67
8
19
6
<0.0001

Young Perennial Crops
Yaoundé
34
6
18
2
NS

Mbalmayo
40
3
7
9
NS

Ebolowa
57
13
30
0
0.0017

p-value
NS
NS
NS
NS


Means
44
7
18
4
0.0002

The values are averages of the scores for 10 groups of farmers (5 male and 5 female groups) interviewed per AECD-Blocks; p-value is the significance levels of a non parametric test of Kruskal-Wallis; NS = nonsignificant (p > 0.05); AECD-Blocks = Agro-Ecological, Cultural and Demographic Blocks.

Kekeunou et al. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 2006 2:17 doi:10.1186/1746-4269-2-17

Table 8

Different methods used by farmers in the humid forest of Southern Cameroon of control Zonocerus variegatus.

All

AECD-Blocks
No method
Chemical method
Natural method (rain)
Physical method

Yaounde
10
50
40
90
Mbalmayo
0
30
30
100
Ebolowa
60
0
10
40
Means
23
27
27
77
Female
Yaounde
20
40
20
80
Mbalmayo
0
20
20
100
Ebolowa
60
0
0
40
Means
27
20
13
73
Male
Yaounde
0
60
60
100
Mbalmayo
0
40
40
100
Ebolowa
60
0
20
40
Means
20
33
40
80

The values (%) are averages for 10 groups of farmers (5 male and 5 female groups) interviewed per AECD-blocks; AECD-Blocks = Agro-Ecological, Cultural and Demographic Blocks.

Kekeunou et al. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 2006 2:17 doi:10.1186/1746-4269-2-17


rating: 10.00 from 3 votes | updated on: 21 Apr 2008 | views: 9526 |

Rate article:







excellent!bad…