Evidence for Widespread Convergent Evolution around Human Microsatellites
Edward J. Vowles1*, William Amos1
1 Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom
*To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: [email protected]
Academic Editor: David Penny, Massey University
Microsatellites are a major component of the human genome, and their evolution has been much studied. However, the evolution of microsatellite flanking sequences has received less attention, with reports of both high and low mutation rates and of a tendency for microsatellites to cluster. From the human genome we generated a database of many thousands of (AC)n flanking sequences within which we searched for common characteristics. Sequences flanking microsatellites of similar length show remarkable levels of convergent evolution, indicating shared mutational biases. These biases extend 25–50 bases either side of the microsatellite and may therefore affect more than 30% of the entire genome. To explore the extent and absolute strength of these effects, we quantified the observed convergence. We also compared homologous human and chimpanzee loci to look for evidence of changes in mutation rate around microsatellites. Most models of DNA sequence evolution assume that mutations are independent and occur randomly. Allowances may be made for sites mutating at different rates and for general mutation biases such as the faster rate of transitions over transversions. Our analysis suggests that these models may be inadequate, in that proximity to even very short microsatellites may alter the rate and distribution of mutations that occur. The elevated local mutation rate combined with sequence convergence, both of which we find evidence for, also provide a possible resolution for the apparently contradictory inferences of mutation rates in microsatellite flanking sequences.
Abbreviations: NCBI, National Center for Biotechnology Information
PLoS Biol 2(8): e199; Published: August 17, 2004. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License.