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Biology Articles » Agriculture » Plant Production » Escherichia coli Contamination of Vegetables Grown in Soils Fertilized with Noncomposted Bovine Manure: Garden-Scale Studies » Tables

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- Escherichia coli Contamination of Vegetables Grown in Soils Fertilized with Noncomposted Bovine Manure: Garden-Scale Studies

 
TABLE 1.

Physical and chemical characteristics of soils

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Characteristic Soil type (location)
Loamy sand (Hancock) Silt loam (Lancaster) Silty clay loam (West Madison)
% Sand 87 12 19
% Silt 6 75 65
% Clay 7 13 16
pH 6.8 6.0 6.3
% Organic matter 1.0 2.7 3.8
% Total N 0.09 0.14 0.18
Available P (ppm) 135 24 30
Available K (ppm) 118 118 132

 

 

 


 

TABLE 2.

Survival of indigenous E. coli in three soils fertilized with noncomposted bovine manure

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Soil (location) Treatment no. Manure application date (day/mo)a Date of tilling (day/mo)a Inoculum levelb No. of days for:
First plot enrichmentc Second plot enrichment done First enrichment negatived
Loamy sand (Hancock) Control 1 Nonee None 4.8 198 209 198
  Control 2 Nonee None 4.9 198 198 198
  1 4/21 4/21 4.1 71 71 100
  3 4/23 5/13 4.3 54 54 126
  5 5/13 5/13 4.7 49 59 118
  7 5/13 None 2.6 34 78 >132f
  9 6/11 6/11 4.9 NTg NT >103f
  11 6/11 7/9 5.9 NT NT >103f
Silt loam (Lancaster) Control 1 Nonee None 4.3 182 182 182
  Control 2 Nonee None 4.3 182 182 182
  1 4/14 4/14 2.9 84 84 128
  3 4/18 5/21 4.2 80 95 110
  5 5/19 5/28 4.3 79 79 >133f
  7 5/8 None 4.3 60 104 90
  9 6/4 6/4 4.9 63 77 >117f
  11 6/4 None 4.9 33 48 >117f
Silty clay loam (West Madison) Control 1 Noneh None <1.2i 28 28 42
  Control 2 Noneh None <1.3i 28 28 42
  1 4/15 4/15 4.0 83 98 >167f
  3 4/16 5/21 4.3 41 41 41
  5 5/13 5/13 4.3 70 83 >113f
  7 5/8 None 4.4 45 45 >133f
  9 6/2 6/2 4.3 35 79 >93f
  11 6/2 6/13 4.8 50 79 >119f
aAll dates are in 2003.
bMean log CFU per gram of manure-fertilized soil for two plots.
cNumber of days after manure application when enrichment was done for at least one plot (the preceding sample from the plot yielded no presumptive E. coli colonies as determined by direct plating [detection limits, approximately 0.9 to 1.4, 1.1 to 1.9, and 1.0 to 1.6 log CFU/g for loamy sand, silt loam, and silty clay loam, respectively]).
dNumber of days after manure application when a plot for a treatment analyzed by enrichment first yielded negative results.
eManure was applied during the preceding fall (2002).
fNo enrichment-negative results were obtained; no sampling was done after the number of days indicated.
gNT, no direct plating done. The enrichment procedure was performed for the first samples after manure application and thereafter.
hNo manure was applied during the preceding fall or in the spring of 2003. The times for first enrichment, second enrichment, and first enrichment negative are the numbers of days since the initial sampling.
iNo presumptive E. coli was detected by direct plating for initial samples from both plots.

 

 

 


TABLE 3.

Indigenous E. coli on carrots, lettuce, and radishes grown in three soils fertilized with noncomposted bovine manure

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Soil (location) Treatment no. Manure application date (day/mo)a Carrots
Lettuce
Radishes
Planting date (day/mo)a First enrichment negative (days)b Planting date (day/mo)a First enrichment negative (days)b Planting date (day/mo)a First enrichment negative (days)b
Loamy sand (Hancock) Control 2 Nonec 5/8 244 5/12 244 5/12 244
  1 4/21 5/12 91 5/12 63 5/12 >82d
  3 4/23 5/16 107 5/28 >80d 5/16 >77d
  5 5/13 5/30 69 5/30 60 5/30 61
  7 5/13 5/29 69 5/29 >78d 5/29 >61d
  9 6/11 7/9 103 7/9 77 7/9 >77
  11 6/11 7/9 89 7/9 77 7/9 >77d
Silt loam (Lancaster) Control 2 Nonec 5/21 288 5/21 265 5/21 240
  1 4/14 5/21 120 5/21 97 5/21 72
  3 4/18 5/21 116 5/21 93 5/21 68
  5 5/19 5/28 85 5/28 62 5/28 >64d
  7 5/8 5/28 96 5/28 84 5/28 >75
  9 6/4 6/17 NCe 6/17 NC 6/17 NC
  11 6/4 6/17 NC 6/17 NC 6/17 NC
Silty clay loam (West Madison) Control 2 Nonef 5/27 119 5/27 113 5/27 98
  1 4/15 5/22 104 5/22 98 5/22 69
  3 4/16 5/22 103 5/22 97 5/22 68
  5 5/13 6/5 76 5/27 70 5/27 >55d
  7 5/8 6/5 81 5/27 75 5/27 46
  9 6/2 6/17 94 6/17 56 6/17 56
  11 6/2 6/17 94 6/17 56 6/17 56
aAll dates are in 2003.
bNumber of days after manure application when a plot for a treatment first yielded a washed vegetable sample that was negative following enrichment.
cManure was applied during the preceding fall (2002).
dNo enrichment-negative results were obtained; no sampling was done after the number of days indicated.
eNC, no crop harvested, because of drought.
fNo manure was applied during the preceding fall or in the spring of 2003. The times for first enrichment negative are the numbers of days since the initial sampling.

 

 

 


TABLE 4.

Weekly precipitation and irrigation amounts at the Hancock (loamy sand), Lancaster (silt loam), and West Madison (silty clay loam) sites during the study

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Study week Date Hancock
Lancaster
West Madison
Precipitation (mm) Irrigation (mm) Precipitation (mm) Irrigation (mm) Precipitation (mm) Irrigation (mm)
1 1-7 April 1 0 3 0 1 0
2   0 0 1 0 0 0
3   4 0 4 0 3 0
4   0 0 0 0 0 0
5   5 0 22 0 14 0
6   10 0 15 0 9 0
7   2 0 9 0 11 0
8   0 0 8 0 1 0
9   2 0 4 0 4 0
10 3-9 June 8 25 7 0 6 0
11   1 25 1 0 1 0
12   1 25 0 0 10 19
13   5 25 13 0 8 0
14   3 25 9 0 11 0
15   4 25 8 0 8 0
16   0 25 1 0 10 0
17   0 25 1 0 0 0
18   2 25 1 0 1 19
19   1 25 1 0 0 0
20 12-18 August 0 25 0 0 1 19
21   1 25 3 0 2 19
22   0 25 7 0 7 19
23   0 25 0 0 0 0
24   8 25 19 0 21 0
25   1 25 6 0 2 0
26   1 0 3 0 0 0
27   1 0 0 0 1 0
28   5 0 8 0 8 0
29   0 0 16 0 7 0
30 21-27 October 1 0 11 0 12 0
Total   67 400a 181 0a 159 95a
aThe total amounts (precipitation plus irrigation) for the Hancock, Lancaster, and West Madison soils were 467, 181, and 254 mm, respectively.

 

 

 


TABLE 5.

Average weekly high and low temperatures at the Hancock (loamy sand), Lancaster (silt loam), and West Madison (silty clay loam) sites during the study

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Study week Date Avg temp (°C)a
Hancock
Lancaster
West Madison
High Low High Low High Low
1 1-7 April 3 −5 11 −2 5 −3
2   17 −1 13 −1 16 0
3   12 −1 17 6 15 5
4   18 3 18 4 18 4
5   14 5 16 6 14 6
6   18 7 17 7 18 9
7   19 9 19 9 19 9
8   19 5 19 7 19 7
9   22 9 23 10 21 9
10 3-9 June 21 11 20 10 21 12
11   24 12 25 14 24 14
12   27 12 26 14 26 13
13   25 14 26 15 26 16
14   29 17 29 19 30 18
15   23 14 24 15 23 15
16   26 13 27 15 26 16
17   27 15 26 16 26 17
18   27 15 28 16 26 16
19   27 14 27 15 26 16
20 12-18 August 30 17 30 17 29 18
21   31 18 31 18 31 19
22   27 11 29 14 26 14
23   28 13 27 12 27 15
24   25 14 26 15 24 15
25   24 10 23 14 24 11
26   14 5 17 4 16 6
27   13 1 13 0 13 1
28   23 9 23 9 23 10
29   17 3 16 3 17 5
30 21-27 October 10 −1 14 2 11 2
aAverages were calculated from the daily high and low temperatures for each 7-day period.
 
 
 

 

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