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Biology Articles » Bioengineering » Engineering Approaches for the Detection and Control of Orthopaedic Biofilm Infections » Tables

Tables
- Engineering Approaches for the Detection and Control of Orthopaedic Biofilm Infections

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Table 1. Device-Related Infections of Prosthetic Devices in the United States

Device Usage/Year Infection Risk (%)
Central venous catheters 5 million 3–8
Bladder catheters Tens of millions 10–30
Prosthetic heart valves 85,000 1–3
Vascular grafts 450,000 2–10
Cardiac pacemakers 400,000 1–5
Cardiac assist devices 700 50–100
Penile implants 15,000 2–10
Joint prostheses 600,000 1–3
Fracture fixators 2 million 5–10
Dental Implants 2 million 5–10

Data in the table were obtained from a variety of sources by the Center for Biofilm Engineering at Montana State University.

 

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Table 2. The Bioelectric Effect Increases Antibiotic Killing of Biofilm Bacteria

Strain P. aeruginosa P. aeruginosa P. aeruginosa K. pneumoniae E. coli S. gordonii
Antibiotic Tobramycin Tobramycin Tobramycin Tobramycin Gentamicin/Oxytetracycline Gentamicin
Reference Costerton et al 7 McLeod et al17 Wellman et al31 Wellman et al31 Caubet et al6 Wattanakaroon et al31.
Abx alone 1.53 2.88 0 0 2.11/1.9 0.84
DC alone 0.81 0.65 NT 2.45 0.91 1.9
AC alone NT NT NT NT 0.5 NT
DC and Abx 6.02 5.77 6.7 3.9 4.27/> 5.15 4.3
AC and Abx NT NT NT NT 3.43/2.80 NT

 

 

 

 

 

 

 Abx = Antibiotic; DC = Direct current; AC = Alternating current; NT = Not tested

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