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Biology Articles » Bioengineering » Engineering Approaches for the Detection and Control of Orthopaedic Biofilm Infections » Figures

Figures
- Engineering Approaches for the Detection and Control of Orthopaedic Biofilm Infections

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Fig 1. An intraoperative photograph taken during excisional surgery to remove an infected prosthetic joint shows a bacterial biofilm on an infected arthroplasty. The white material that the arrow is pointing to is pus that contains huge numbers of micro-organisms and host-derived leukocytes.

Figure 1

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Fig 2. A–D. The basic concept of the MEMS biosensing device is illustrated showing how the binding of staphylococci-derived quorum sensing peptides on the outside will trigger an internal change in viscosity. (A) A cantilever viscometer is positioned within a microchamber filled with a high-viscosity glucose polysaccharide, and a dextran gel cross-linked with Con-A. (B) The bacterial quorum sensing molecule (RAP, blue ovals) binds to an engineered chimeric receptor protein, (TRAP, orange parabolas) embedded in an artificial membrane. The binding of TRAP induces a conformational change in the transmembrane portion of the chimeric protein(orange rectangles changing to green rectangles) which activates a galactosidase function which cleaves glucose monomers from a polysaccharide substrate. The glucose displaces dextran on the Con-A resulting in a drop in viscosity which is registered by increased deflection of the cantilever. (C) shows the entire unit which would be flush mounted into the artificial joint. (D) photograph of a functional cantilever-based viscometer with scale bar.

Figure 2

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Fig 3. The viscosity (measured as amplitude) of the dextran-Con-A hydrogel as a function of glucose concentration is measured by the microviscometer.

Figure 3

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Fig 4. A schematic diagram shows the main components for in vitro testing of the bioelectric effect. The biofilm is grown or positioned in the exposure chamber. Antibiotics can be pumped into the chamber with nutrients and a DC current can be applied through an anode and cathode. +ve = positive electrode, −ve = negative electode

Figure 4

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