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Biology Articles » Developmental Biology » Embryonic Stem Cells: Prospects for Developmental Biology and Cell Therapy » Tables

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- Embryonic Stem Cells: Prospects for Developmental Biology and Cell Therapy

TABLE 1. Comparison of some properties of mouse and human embryonic stem cells

Marker Mouse ES Cells Human ES Cells Reference Nos.
SSEA-1 + 336
SSEA-3/-4 + 151, 293, 362, 401
TRA-1-60/81 + 151, 293, 362, 401
TRA-2-54 + 151
GCTM-2 + 265, 293
TG 343 ? + 151
TG 30 ? + 265
CD 9 + + 265
CD133/prominin + + 70, 183
Alkaline phosphatase + + 362, 396
Oct-4 + + 268, 362
Nanog + + 73, 233
Sox-2 + + 16, 138
FGF4 + 138
LIF receptor + +/– 296
Telomerase activity + + 11, 362
Regulation of self-renewal Via gp 130 receptors, MEF feeder layer, Nanog, BMP-4 Feeder cells (MEF or human cells), serum, bFGF, Matrigel 73, 250, 362, 401, 410
Growth characteristics in vitro Tight, rounded, multilayer clusters Flat, loose aggregates 362
EB formation Simple and cystic EBs Cystic EBs 98, 168, 362
Teratoma formation in vivo + + 362, 396

MEF, mouse embryonic fibroblasts; EB, embryoid body.

TABLE 2. Molecular markers of human ES cells

GenBank Unigene Gene Reference Nos.
NM_002701 Hs.2860 Oct-3/4 82, 151, 293, 314, 362, 401
NM_003212 Hs.75561 Tdgf1 (Cripto) 52
L07335 Hs.816 Sox2 151
NM_003240 Hs.25195 LeftyA 52
AL558479 Hs.125359 Thy-1 cell surface antigen 151
BF510715 Hs.1755 FGF4 151
NM_009556 Hs.335787 Rex-1 (Zfp-42) 151
NM_001001553.1 Hs.528118 Stellar 82
NM_001351 Hs.1618 Dazl 82
NM_024865 Hs.79923 Nanog 82
NM_199461 Hs.340719 Nanos 82
NM_014676 Hs.9698 Pum1 82
NM_015317 Hs.23369 Pum2 82
NM_020634 Hs.9573 Gdf3 82

Dazl, deleted in azoospermia like; Stellar, Stella-related; Pum, Pumilio homolog (Drosophila); Gdf, growth and differentiation factor.

TABLE 3. Examples for the in vitro differentiation capacity of mouse ES cells

Cell Type Reference Nos.
Adipocytes 93
Astrocytes 6, 122, 311, 357
Cardiomyocytes 98, 217, 218, 227
Chondrocytes 194
Definitive hematopoietic cells 245, 249, 390
Primitive hematopoietic cells 98, 245
Dendritic cells 111
Endothelial cells 299, 406
Hepatocytes 149, 177, 182
Keratinocytes 20
Lymphoid precursors 275
Mast cells 368
Neurons 386
Dopaminergic neurons 186, 206, 311
Serotonergic neurons 206
GABAergic neurons 22, 350
Cholinergic neurons 122
Glutamatergic neurons 116, 350
Motor neurons 389
Oligodendrocytes 8, 32, 54, 211, 366
Osteoblasts 61
Pancreatic cells 38, 162, 213
Smooth muscle cells 99, 406
Skeletal muscle cells 309
Yolk sac 98


TABLE 4. Examples demonstrating the developmental potential of human ES cells in vitro

Cell Types Developed Reference Nos.
Ectoderm, endoderm, mesoderm, and neural precursors
Cardiomyocytes 188, 239, 240, 402
Cardiomyocytes, endodermal, hematopoietic, and neuronal cells 168
Neuronal, epithelial, pancreatic, urogenital, hematopoietic, muscle, bone, kidney, and heart cells 323
Neural epithelium, embryonic ganglia, stratified squamous epithelium, gut epithelium, cartilage, bone, smooth and striated muscle cells 362
Cells with properties of pancreatic {beta}-like cells 13, 324
Cardiomyocytes, pigmented and nonpigmented epithelial cells, neural cells, mesenchymal cells, erythroid, macrophage, granulocyte, and megakaryocyte cells 252
Myeloid, erythroid, megakaryocyte colony-forming cells 185
Neural precursors, glial and neuronal cells: incorporation into the brain (H1, H9, H9.2 lines) 415
Neural precursors, glial and neuronal cells: incorporation into the brain (HES-1 line) 292
Neural progenitor, dopaminergic, GABAergic, glutamatergic, glycinergic neurons, astrocytes 69
Neural progenitor, neuronal cells 322
Trophoblast 403
Hepatocytes 285


TABLE 5. Persons in the United States affected by diseases that may be helped by human pluripotent stem cell research

Condition Number of Persons Affected
Cardiovascular diseases 58 Million
Autoimmune diseases 30 Million
Diabetes 16 Million
Osteoporosis 10 Million
Cancer 8.2 Million
Alzheimer's disease 4 Million
Parkinson's disease 1.5 Million
Burns (severe) 0.3 Million
Spinal cord injuries 0.25 Million
Birth defects 150,000 (per year)
Total 128.4 Million

Data from the Patients' Coalition for Urgent Research, Washington, DC (according to Perry, Ref. 267).


TABLE 6. Transplantations of mouse and human ES-derived cells into animal models

Cell Type Transplantation Into Reference Nos.
Cardiomyocytes (m) Myocardium of dystrophic mice 192
RA-induced GABAergic neurons (m) Rat striatum: integration 95
Neural progenitors (m) Embryonic rat ventricles 55
Rat striatum: integration 12
Mouse cerebrum: integration 6
FACS-sorted postmitotic neurons (m) Telencephalic vesicle of embryonic rat: integration 386
Glial precursors (m) Myelin-deficient rat (Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease): integration and function 54
RA-induced neurons (m) Injured rat spinal cord: function 226
Motor neurons (m) Chicken spinal cord: integration and muscle innervation 389
Midbrain dopaminergic neurons (m) Parkinson rat model: function 25, 191
Neural progenitors (h) Mouse brain ventricles 292
Neonatal mouse brain: integration 415
Insulin-producing cells (m) Streptozotocin-treated diabetic mice: normalization of blood glucose levels 38, 162, 338
Hepatocytes (m) Mice with CCl4 intoxicated liver damage: regeneration 405
Hematopoietic precursors (m) Irradiated mice: myeloid and lymphoid engraftment 196
Undifferentiated mES cells Spleen of immunosuppressed nude mice 80
Infarcted myocardium of rats 231
Undifferentiated hES cells Immunocompromised mice 252
Somites of chick embryos (E1.5-2d) 139

m, mouse; h, human.



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