EDR2 negatively regulates salicylic acid-based defenses and cell death during powdery mildew infections of Arabidopsis thaliana
Sonja Vorwerk* 1 ,2, Celine Schiff* 1 ,3, Marjorie Santamaria1, Serry Koh1 ,4, Marc Nishimura1 ,5, John Vogel1 ,6, Chris Somerville1 ,7 and Shauna Somerville1
1Carnegie Institution, Department of Plant Biology, 260 Panama Street, Stanford CA 94305, USA
2Febit Biotech Gmbh, Heidelberg, Germany
3Alcimed, Paris, France
4Sogang University, Seoul, 100-611, South Korea
5Department of Biology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA
6USDA-ARS Western Regional Laboratory, Albany, CA, USA
7Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford CA 94305, USA
The hypersensitive necrosis response (HR) of resistant plants to avirulent pathogens is a form of programmed cell death in which the plant sacrifices a few cells under attack, restricting pathogen growth into adjacent healthy tissues. In spite of the importance of this defense response, relatively little is known about the plant components that execute the cell death program or about its regulation in response to pathogen attack.
We isolated the edr2-6 mutant, an allele of the previously described edr2 mutants. We found that edr2-6 exhibited an exaggerated chlorosis and necrosis response to attack by three pathogens, two powdery mildew and one downy mildew species, but not in response to abiotic stresses or attack by the bacterial leaf speck pathogen. The chlorosis and necrosis did not spread beyond inoculated sites suggesting that EDR2 limits the initiation of cell death rather than its spread. The pathogen-induced chlorosis and necrosis of edr2-6 was correlated with a stimulation of the salicylic acid defense pathway and was suppressed in mutants deficient in salicylic acid signaling. EDR2 encodes a novel protein with a pleckstrin homology and a StAR transfer (START) domain as well as a plant-specific domain of unknown function, DUF1336. The pleckstrin homology domain binds to phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate in vitro and an EDR2:HA:GFP protein localizes to endoplasmic reticulum, plasma membrane and endosomes.
EDR2 acts as a negative regulator of cell death, specifically the cell death elicited by pathogen attack and mediated by the salicylic acid defense pathway. Phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate may have a role in limiting cell death via its effect on EDR2. This role in cell death may be indirect, by helping to target EDR2 to the appropriate membrane, or it may play a more direct role.
BMC Plant Biology 2007, 7:35. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License.