Strain UVA1, isolated from new born faeces, was clearly identified as a Pediococcus acidilactici using a polyphasic approach. Data for the molecular size, sensitivity to protease and sequence of the plasmid-borne genetic determinant indicated that the antibacterial compound produced by UVA1 is pediocin PA-1/AcH. To our knowledge, Pediococcus acidilactici UVA1 is the first pediocin-producing Pediococcus strain isolated from human faeces. Real-time PCR was an efficient method for detection of specific genes in faecal samples harbouring a complex microbiota. We showed a large distribution of pedA-containing strains in baby faecal samples.