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Biology Articles » Reproductive Biology » Contributions of androgen and estrogen to fetal programming of ovarian dysfunction » Table

Table
- Contributions of androgen and estrogen to fetal programming of ovarian dysfunction

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Table 1: Summary of major reproductive dysfunction or anomalies associated with fetal deficiency or excess of androgen or estrogen
Major reproductive dysfunction/anomaly
Fetal deficiency of:
Fetal excess of:

Androgenb
Estrogena
Androgen
Estrogen
Ovarian




Reduced ovulatory frequency
+ [29]
+ [45]
+ [12, 50–56]
+ [15, 76, 80, 81]
Reduced follicle number
?
+ [33, 44]
+ [69]
+ [14, 77]
Reduced ovarian response to FSH
+ [29]
+ [42, 43]
+ [69]
?
Excessive, endogeneous hypergonadotropic-inducing hemorrhagic follicles
-
+ [38, 45]
-
-
Ovarian hyperandrogenism
-
+ [38]
+ [49, 53]
+ [77, 79]
Polycystic ovaries
?
-
+ [13, 52, 57]
?
Impaired oocyte developmental competence
?
?
+ [28, 69, 70]
?
Partial masculinization of the ovary
-
+ [47, 48]
-
-
Premature ovarian senescence
?
?
+ [50–52]
?
Neuroendocrine




Increased LH levels
?
+ [24, 38, 45]
+ [12, 53, 56, 60]
?
Increased FSH levels
?
+ [24, 45]
-
?
De-sensitized estradiol/progesterone negative feedback on LH
?
?
+ [49, 53–56, 58–60]
?
Increased gonadotrope LH sensitivity to GnRH
?
?
+ [49]
?
a : as discussed in the text, many instances of fetal androgen and estrogen deficiencies persist into adult life and partially confound assessments of the precise causes of the reproductive abnormalities found.
b : abnormalities summarized in this table reflect studies in which there were no concomitant
deficiencies in estrogen

 

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