Chronopharmacology Focused on Biological Clock
Clinical Pharmacokinetics, Division of Clinical Pharmacy, Department of Medico-Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan
Summary: The mammalians circadian pacemaker resides in the paired suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) and in‰uences a multitude of biological processes, including the sleep-wake rhythm. Clock genes are the genes that control the circadian rhythms in physiology and behavior. The eŠectiveness and toxicity of many drugs vary depending on dosing time associated with 24 hr rhythms of biochemical, physiological and behavioral processes under the control of circadian clock. Such chronopharmacological phenomena are in‰uenced by not only the pharmacokinetics but also pharmacodynamics of medications. Identiˆcation of a rhythmic marker for selecting dosing time will lead to improved progress and diŠusion of chronopharmacotherapy. The mechanisms underlying chronopharmacological ˆndings should be clariˆed from the viewpoint of clock genes. On the other hand, several drugs have an eŠect on circadian clock. The knowledge of interactions between circadian clock and drugs should be very useful for clinical practice. Therefore, I introduce the regulatory system of biological rhythm from viewpoints of clock genes and the possibility of pharmacotherapy based on clock genes.
Key words: chronopharmacology; chronotherapy; chronopharmacokinetics; circadian rhythm; biological
Drug Metab. Pharmacokinet. 22 (1): 3–14 (2007).