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Stage-level analysis of extinctions and originations of bryozoan genera of the orders …


Biology Articles » Paleobiology » Paleobotany » Bryozoan generic extinctions and originations during the last one hundred million years » Figures

Figures
- Bryozoan generic extinctions and originations during the last one hundred million years

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Figure 1. Relationship between stage duration and rates of origination and extinction. A. Origination rate (originations/ standing diversity/myr) plotted against stage duration; r = 0.145. B. Extinction rate (originations/standing diversity/myr) plotted against stage duration; r = 0.173.

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Figure 2. Standing diversity of cyclostome and cheilostome bryozoans during the Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic. For this and other graphs displaying data through time, data are grouped by stage, and each point is plotted at mid-Stage.

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Figure 3. Number of generic extinctions per stage. A. Including only genera known to range through two or more stages. B. All generic extinctions, including stage-only.

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Figure 4. Total bryozoan (cyclostome plus cheilostome) generic extinctions by stage. A, B. Extinctions per million years. C, D. Extinctions per standing diversity. E, F. Extinctions per standing diversities per million years. Graphs on the left do not include genera known only from a single stage, and those on the right do include stage-only genera. Error bars represent 95% confidence intervals.

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Figure 5. Cyclostome generic extinctions by stage. See Figure 4 for explanation of layout.

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Figure 6. Cheilostome generic extinctions by stage. See Figure 4 for explanation of layout.

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Figure 7. Stage-level extinction intensities (without stage-only genera) arranged in ascending order. Extinctions per million years; A. cyclostomes, B. cheilostomes. C, D. Extinctions per standing diversity; C. cyclostomes, D. cheilostomes. Extinctions per standing diversities per million years; E. cyclostomes, F. cheilostomes.

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Figure 8. Number of generic originations per stage. A. Including only genera known to range through two or more stages. B. All generic extinctions, including stage-only.

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Figure 9. Total bryozoan (cyclostome plus cheilostome) generic originations by stage. A, B. Originations per million years. C, D. Originations per standing diversity. E, F. Originations per standing diversities per million years. Graphs on the left do not include genera known only from a single stage, and those on the right do include stage-only genera. Error bars represent 95% confidence intervals.

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Figure 10. Cyclostome generic originations by stage. See Figure 9 for explanation of layout.

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Figure 11. Cheilostome generic originations by stage. See Figure 9 for explanation of layout.

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Figure 12. Stage-level originations (without stage-only genera) arranged in ascending order. Originations per million years; A. cyclostomes, B. cheilostomes. C, D. Originations per standing diversity; C. cyclostomes, D. cheilostomes. Originations per standing diversities per million years; E. cyclostomes, F. cheilostomes.

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Figure 13. Cheilostome versus cyclostome extinctions (A) and originations (B) per stage, plotted as rates per standing diversity per million years. Blue fields represenet Mesozoic, yellow Cenozoic.

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Figure 14. Extinctions per standing diversity per million years for encrusting and erect (A) cyclostomes and (B) cheilostomes. Standing diversities of erect cyclostomes and of encrusting cheilostomes were relatively large throughout, but standing diversities of encrusting cyclostomes and of erect cheilostomes were relatively low.

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