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Biology Articles » Bioengineering » Biomaterials Approaches to Combating Oral Biofilms and Dental Disease » Tables

Tables
- Biomaterials Approaches to Combating Oral Biofilms and Dental Disease

 


Table 1: Potential strategies to reduce or eliminate bacterial biofilms
Process contributing to Net Biofilm Accumulation
Potential Interventions
Substratum pre-conditioning
Change surface chemistry; non-fouling surfaces vs. signal decorated surfaces
Cell Deposition
Maintain sterility
Reversible adhesion Irreversible adhesion Desorption
Change surface chemistry or surface topography. Tethered or released toxic agent(s). Base material degradable. External toxic challenge. Specific adhesin blockers
Cell Signaling
Signal analogs; receptor blocking.
Cell Metabolism
Antibiotic challenge; starvation, chelator challenge; bacteriophage infection, bacteriophage lytic enzymes, device surgical removal
Biofilm Removal
Antibiotic challenge; starvation, chelator challenge; bacteriophage infection, bacteriophage lytic enzymes, device surgical removal

 

 


Table 2: Anti-caries Therapeutics for Controlled Release
Agent Released
Mode of Action
Relative Costs
Reference
Fluoride
mixed mode
low
Aaltonen et al., 2000 [18]
Chlorhexidine
disinfectant
low
Twetman, 2004 [19]
Xylitol
noncariogenic sweeteners
low
Smits & Arends, 1985. [20]
Tanzer, 1995 [21]
Commercial antibiotics
mixed targets
moderate

Anti-bacterial peptides (defensins, magainin derivatives, bacteriocins and cecropins)
cell membrane perforation
moderate/high
Otvos et al., 2004 [22]
Ericksen et al., 2005 [23]
pH Buffers
maintain non-acidic pH
low
Lynch, 2004 [24]
Chelators (EGTA)
strips Ca+2 from biofilm polysaccharide; causes biofilm disruption
low
Ozerdem et al., 2003 [25]
Raad et al., 2003 [26]
Polysaccharide modifiers (lyase, AlCl3)

moderate
Albrecht and Schiller, 2005 [27]
Stoodley et al., 2001 [28]
Enzymes (proteases)
enzymatically degrades cell walls and adhesin proteins
moderate/high
Berg et al., 2001 [29]
Johansen et al., 1997 [30]
Sato et al., 1983 [31]
Quorum sensing analogs (furanones, salicylic acid)
negates las and Rhl regulon systems, down-regulates polysaccharide synthesis
moderate/high
Daniels et al., 2004 [32]
Baveja et al., 2004 [33]
Anti-adhesin blockers
negates specific adhesion of select bacteria to exclusive ligand
high
Hajishengallis et al., 1992 [34]

 


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