1. Rajakumar K. Vitamin D, cod-liver oil, sunlight, and rickets: a historical perspective. Pediatrics 2003;112:e132-135.
2. Garland CF, Garland FC. Do sunlight and vitamin D reduce the likelihood of colon cancer? Int J Epidemiol 1980;9:227-231.
3. Garland C, Shekelle RB, Barrett-Connor E, et al. Dietary vitamin D and calcium and risk of colorectal cancer: a 19-year prospective study in men. Lancet 1985;1:307-309.
4. Grant WB. An estimate of premature cancer mortality in the U.S. due to inadequate doses of solar ultraviolet-B radiation. Cancer 2002;94:1867- 1875.
5. Goldberg P, Fleming MC, Picard EH. Multiple sclerosis: decreased relapse rate through dietary supplementation with calcium, magnesium and vitamin D. Med Hypotheses 1986;21:193-200.
6. Hayes CE, Cantorna MT, DeLuca HF. Vitamin D and multiple sclerosis. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1997;216:21-27.
7. Hypponen E, Laara E, Reunanen A, et al. Intake of vitamin D and risk of type 1 diabetes: a birth-cohort study. Lancet 2001;358:1500-1503.
8. Holick MF. Vitamin D: a millenium perspective. J Cell Biochem 2003:88:296-307.
9. Zittermann A. Vitamin D in preventive medicine: are we ignoring the evidence? Br J Nutr 2003;89:552-572.
10. Heaney RP. Long-latency deficiency disease: insights from calcium and vitamin D. Am J Clin Nutr 2003;78:912-919.
11. Hayes CE, Nashold FE, Spach KM, Pedersen LB. The immunological functions of the vitamin D endocrine system. Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand) 2003;49:277-300.
12. Holick MF. Vitamin D: importance in the prevention of cancers, type 1 diabetes, heart disease, and osteoporosis. Am J Clin Nutr 2004;79:362-371. Erratum in: Am J Clin Nutr 2004;79:890.
13. Hollis BW, Wagner CL. Assessment of dietary vitamin D requirements during pregnancy and lactation. Am J Clin Nutr 2004;79:717-726.
14. Hollis BW, Wagner CL. Vitamin D requirements during lactation: high-dose maternal supplementation as therapy to prevent hypovitaminosis D for both the mother and the nursing infant. Am J Clin Nutr 2004;80:1752S-1758S.
15. Grant WB, Strange RC, Garland CF. Sunshine is good medicine: the health benefits of ultraviolet-B induced vitamin D production. J Cos Dermatol 2003;2:86-98.
16. Vasquez A, Manso G, Cannell J. The clinical importance of vitamin D (cholecalciferol): a paradigm shift with implications for all healthcare providers. Altern Ther Health Med 2004;10:28-36;quiz 37,94.
17. Holick MF. Sunlight and vitamin D for bone health and prevention of autoimmune diseases, cancers, and cardiovascular disease. Am J Clin Nutr 2004;80:1678S-1688S.
18. Cantorna MT, Zhu Y, Froicu M, Wittke A. Vitamin D status, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, and the immune system. Am J Clin Nutr 2004;80:1717S-1720S.
19. Cantorna MT, Mahon BD. Mounting evidence for vitamin D as an environmental factor affecting autoimmune disease prevalence. Exp Biol Med (Maywood) 2004;229:1136-1142.
20. Mosekilde L. Vitamin D and the elderly. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2005;62:265-281.
21. Peterlik M, Cross HS. Vitamin D and calcium insufficiencies predispose for multiple chronic diseases. Eur J Clin Invest 2005;35:290-304.
22. Raiten DJ, Picciano MF. Vitamin D and health in the 21st century: bone and beyond. Executive summary. Am J Clin Nutr 2004;80:1673S-1677S.
23. Calvo MS, Whiting SJ. Overview of the proceedings from Experimental Biology 2004 symposium: vitamin D insufficiency: a significant risk factor in chronic diseases and potential disease – specific biomarkers of vitamin D sufficiency. J Nutr 2005;135:301-303.
24. Cancer Chemoprevention & Cancer Treatment: Is there a role for vitamin D, 1α,25(OH)2-vitamin D3, or new analogs (deltanoids)? Bethesda, MD, November 17-19, 2004, Sponsored by The National Cancer Institute, NIH, The Vitamin D Workshop, http://vitamind.ucr.edu/Cancer&CancerChemo.htm (accessed April 10, 2005).
26. Working Group of the Australian and New Zealand Bone and Mineral Society, Endocrine Society of Australia and Osteoporosis Australia. Vitamin D and adult bone health in Australia and New Zealand: a position statement. Med J Aust
27. Jablonski NG, Chaplin G. The evolution of human skin coloration. J Hum Evol 2000;39:57-106.
28. Pawley N, Bishop NJ. Prenatal and infant predictors of bone health: the influence of vitamin D. Am J Clin Nutr 2004;80:1748S-1751S.
29. Kreiter SR, Schwartz RP, Kirkman HN Jr, et al. Nutritional rickets in African American breast-fed infants. J Pediatr 2000;137:153-157.
30. Weisberg P, Scanlon KS, Li R, Cogswell ME. Nutritional rickets among children in the United States: review of cases reported between 1986 and 2003. Am J Clin Nutr 2004;80:1697S-1705S.
31. Specker B. Vitamin D requirements during pregnancy. Am J Clin Nutr 2004;80:1740S-1747S.
32. Fuller KE. Low birth-weight infants: the continuing ethnic disparity and the interaction of biology and environment. Ethn Dis 2000;10:432-445.
33. Branum AM, Schoendorf KC. Changing patterns of low birthweight and preterm birth in the United States, 1981-98. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 2002;16:8-15.
34. Alexander GR, Kogan M, Bader D, et al. US birth weight/gestational age-specific neonatal mortality: 1995-1997 rates for whites, hispanics, and blacks. Pediatrics 2003;111:e61-e66.
35. Gould JB, Madan A, Qin C, Chavez G. Perinatal outcomes in two dissimilar immigrant populations in the United States: a dual epidemiologic paradox. Pediatrics 2003;111:e676-e682.
36. Calvo MS, Whiting SJ, Barton CN. Vitamin D fortification in the United States and Canada: current status and data needs. Am J Clin Nutr 2004;80:1710S-1716S.
37. Namgung R, Tsang RC. Bone in the pregnant mother and newborn at birth. Clin Chim Acta 2003;333:1-11.
38. Aine L, Backstrom MC, Maki R, et al. Enamel defects in primary and permanent teeth of children born prematurely. J Oral Pathol Med 2000;29:403-409.
39. Purvis RJ, Barrie WJ, MacKay GS, et al. Enamel hypoplasia of the teeth associated with neonatal tetany: a manifestation of maternal vitamin-D deficiency. Lancet 1973;2:811-814.
40. Hypponen E. Micronutrients and the risk of type 1 diabetes: vitamin D, vitamin E, and nicotinamide. Nutr Rev 2004;62:340-347.
41. Zella JB, DeLuca HF. Vitamin D and autoimmune diabetes. J Cell Biochem 2003;88:216-222.
42. Motohashi Y, Yamada S, Yanagawa T, et al. Vitamin D receptor gene polymorphism affects onset pattern of type 1 diabetes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2003;88:3137-3140.
43. Willis JA, Scott RS, Darlow BA, et al. Seasonality of birth and onset of clinical disease in children and adolescents (0-19 years) with type 1 diabetes mellitus in Canterbury, New Zealand. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2002;15:645-647.
44. Harris SS. Vitamin D in type 1 diabetes prevention. J Nutr 2005;135:323-325.
45. Cantorna MT. Vitamin D and autoimmunity: is vitamin D status an environmental factor affecting
autoimmune disease prevalence? Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 2000;223:230-233.
46. DeLuca HF, Cantorna MT. Vitamin D: its role and uses in immunology. FASEB J 2001;15:2579-2585. 47. Embry AF. Vitamin D supplementation in the fight against multiple sclerosis. J Orthomolecular Med 2004;19:27-38.
48. Templer DI, Trent NH, Spencer DA, et al. Season of birth in multiple sclerosis. Acta Neurol Scand 1992;85:107-109.
49. Willer CJ, Dyment DA, Sadovnick AD, et al. Timing of birth and risk of multiple sclerosis: population based study. BMJ 2005;330:120.
50. Chaudhuri A. Why we should offer routine vitamin D supplementation in pregnancy and childhood to prevent multiple sclerosis. Med Hypotheses 2005;64:608-618.
51. Hare EH, Price JS. Mental disorder and season of birth: comparison of psychoses with neurosis. Br J Psychiatry 1969;115:533-540.
52. Parker G. The season of birth of anxiety neurotics. Aust N Z J Psychiatry 1978;12:69-71. 53. Lehtonen-Veromaa MK, Mottonen TT, Nuotio IO, et al. Vitamin D and attainment of peak bone mass among peripubertal Finnish girls: a 3-y prospective study. Am J Clin Nutr 2002;76:1446-1453.
54. Valimaki VV, Alfthan H, Lehmuskallio E, et al. Vitamin D status as a determinant of peak bone mass in young Finnish men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2004;89:76-80.
55. Gordon CM, DePeter KC, Feldman HA, et al. Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among healthy adolescents. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2004;158:531-537.
56. Looker AC, Dawson-Hughes B, Calvo MS, et al. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D status of adolescents and adults in two seasonal subpopulations from NHANES III. Bone 2002;30:771-777.
57. Webb AR, Kline L, Holick MF. Influence of season and latitude on the cutaneous synthesis of vitamin D3: exposure to winter sunlight in Boston and Edmonton will not promote vitamin D3 synthesis in human skin. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1988;67:373- 378.
58. van der Mei IA, Ponsonby AL, Dwyer T, et al. Past exposure to sun, skin phenotype, and risk of multiple sclerosis: case-control study. BMJ 2003;327:316.
59. van der Mei IA, Ponsonby AL, Blizzard L, Dwyer T. Regional variation in multiple sclerosis prevalence in Australia and its association with ambient ultraviolet radiation. Neuroepidemiology 2001;20:168-174.
60. Kurtzke JF. A reassessment of the distribution of multiple sclerosis. Part one. Acta Neurol Scand 1975;51:110-136.
61. Kurtzke JF, Beebe GW, Norman JE Jr. Epidemiology of multiple sclerosis in U.S. veterans: 1. Race, sex, and geographic distribution. Neurology 1979;29:1228-1235.
62. Wallin MT, Page WF, Kurtzke JF. Multiple sclerosis in US veterans of the Vietnam era and later military service: race, sex, and geography. Ann Neurol 2004;55:65-71.
63. Holick MF, Jenkins M. The UV Advantage. New York, NY: iBooks; 2003.
65. Ghezzi A, Zaffaroni M. Neurological manifestations of gastrointestinal disorders, with particular reference to the differential diagnosis of multiple sclerosis. Neurol Sci 2001;22:S117-S122.
66. Wang TT, Nestel FP, Bourdeau V, et al. Cutting edge: 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 is a direct inducer of antimicrobial peptide gene expression. J Immunol 2004;173:2909-2912. Erratum in: J Immunol 2004;173:following 6489. Hanrahan, JH
[corrected to Hanrahan, JW].
67. Lyakh LA, Sanford M, Chekol S, et al. TGFbeta and vitamin D3 utilize distinct pathways to suppress IL-12 production and modulate rapid differentiation of human monocytes into CD83+ dendritic cells. J Immunol 2005;174:2061-2070.
68. Auer DP, Schumann EM, Kumpfel T, et al. Seasonal fluctuations of gadolinium-enhancing magnetic resonance imaging lesions in multiple sclerosis. Ann Neurol 2000;47:276-277.
69. Koziol JA, Feng AC. Seasonal variations in exacerbations and MRI parameters in relapsingremitting multiple sclerosis. Neuroepidemiology 2004;23:217-223.
70. Embry AF, Snowdon LR, Vieth R. Vitamin D and seasonal fluctuations of gadolinium-enhancing magnetic resonance imaging lesions in multiple sclerosis. Ann Neurol 2000;48:271-272.
71. Luscombe CJ, Fryer AA, French ME, et al. Exposure to ultraviolet radiation: association with susceptibility and age at presentation with prostate cancer. Lancet 2001;358:641-642.
72. Bodiwala D, Luscombe CJ, French ME, et al. Associations between prostate cancer susceptibility and parameters of exposure to ultraviolet radiation. Cancer Lett 2003;200:141-148.
73. Hughes AM, Armstrong BK, Vajdic CM, et al. Sun exposure may protect against non-Hodgkin lymphoma: a case-control study. Int J Cancer 2004;112:865-871.
74. Smedby KE, Hjalgrim H, Melbye M, et al. Ultraviolet radiation exposure and risk of malignant lymphomas. J Natl Cancer Inst 2005;97:199-209.
75. Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Conzelmann M, Dick W, et al. Effect of vitamin D on muscle strength and relevance in regard to osteoporosis prevention. Z Rheumatol 2003;62:518-521. [Article in German]
76. Tangpricha V, Turner A, Spina C, et al. Tanning is associated with optimal vitamin D status (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration) and higher bone mineral density. Am J Clin Nutr 2004;80:1645-1649.
77. Koutkia P, Lu Z, Chen TC, Holick MF. Treatment of vitamin D deficiency due to Crohn's disease with tanning bed ultraviolet B radiation. Gastroenterology 2001;121:1485-1488.
78. Lamb EJ, Wong T, Smith DJ, et al. Metabolic bone disease is present at diagnosis in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2002;16:1895-1902.
79. Vestergaard P. Prevalence and pathogenesis of osteoporosis in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Minerva Med 2004;95:469-480.
80. Tamura Y, Okinaga H, Takami H. Glucocorticoidinduced osteoporosis. Biomed Pharmacother 2004;58:500-504.
81. Hansen LB, Vondracek SF. Prevention and treatment of nonpostmenopausal osteoporosis. Am J Health Syst Pharm 2004;61:2637-2654; quiz, 2655-2656.
82. Eriksen EF, Glerup H. Vitamin D deficiency and aging: implications for general health and osteoporosis. Biogerontology 2002;3:73-77.
83. Holick MF. Vitamin D deficiency: what a pain it is. Mayo Clin Proc 2003;78:1457-1459.
84. Plotnikoff GA, Quigley JM. Prevalence of severe hypovitaminosis D in patients with persistent, nonspecific musculoskeletal pain. Mayo Clin Proc 2003;78:1463-1470.
85. Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Dietrich T, Orav EJ, et al. Higher 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations are associated with better lower-extremity function in both active and inactive persons aged > or = 60 y. Am J Clin Nutr 2004;80:752-758.
86. Pfeifer M, Begerow B, Minne HW. Vitamin D and muscle function. Osteoporos Int 2002;13:187-194.
87. Garland FC, Garland CF, Gorham ED, Young JF. Geographic variation in breast cancer mortality in the United States: a hypothesis involving exposure to solar radiation. Prev Med 1990;19:614-622.
88. Hanchette CL, Schwartz GG. Geographic patterns of prostate cancer mortality. Evidence for a protective effect of ultraviolet radiation. Cancer 1992;70:2861-2869.
89. Lefkowitz ES, Garland CF. Sunlight, vitamin D, and ovarian cancer mortality rates in US women. Int J Epidemiol 1994;23:1133-1136.
90. Freedman DM, Dosemeci M, McGlynn K. Sunlight and mortality from breast, ovarian, colon, prostate, and non-melanoma skin cancer: a composite death certificate based case-control study. Occup Environ Med 2002;59:257-262.
91. van den Bemd GJ, Chang GT. Vitamin D and vitamin D analogs in cancer treatment. Curr Drug Targets 2002;3:85-94.
92. Krishnan AV, Peehl DM, Feldman D. Inhibition of prostate cancer growth by vitamin D: regulation of target gene expression. J Cell Biochem 2003;88:363-371.
93. Lamprecht SA, Lipkin M. Chemoprevention of colon cancer by calcium, vitamin D and folate: molecular mechanisms. Nat Rev Cancer 2003;3:601-614.
94. Lipkin M, Newmark H. Calcium and the prevention of colon cancer. J Cell Biochem Suppl 1995;22:65-73.
95. Taylor JA, Hirvonen A, Watson M, et al. Association of prostate cancer with vitamin D receptor gene polymorphism. Cancer Res 1996;56:4108-4110.
96. Ingles SA, Garcia DG, Wang W, et al. Vitamin D receptor genotype and breast cancer in Latinas (United States). Cancer Causes Control 2000;11:25-30.
97. Ingles SA, Wang J, Coetzee GA, et al. Vitamin D receptor polymorphisms and risk of colorectal adenomas (United States). Cancer Causes Control 2001;12:607-614.
98. Ikuyama T, Hamasaki T, Inatomi H, et al. Association of vitamin D receptor gene polymorphism with renal cell carcinoma in Japanese. Endocr J 2002;49:433-438.
99. Slattery ML, Neuhausen SL, Hoffman M, et al. Dietary calcium, vitamin D, VDR genotypes and colorectal cancer. Int J Cancer 2004;111:750-756.Erratum in: Int J Cancer 2004;111:983.
100. Cross HS, Peterlik M, Reddy GS, Schuster I. Vitamin D metabolism in human colon adenocarcinoma-derived Caco-2 cells: expression of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3-1alpha-hydroxylase activity and regulation of side-chain metabolism. J
Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 1997;62:21-28.
101. Schwartz GG, Whitlatch LW, Chen TC, et al. Human prostate cells synthesize 1,25- dihydroxyvitamin D3 from 25-hydroxyvitamin D3. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 1998;7:391-395.
102. Tangpricha V, Flanagan JN, Whitlatch LW, et al. 25-hydroxyvitamin D-1alpha-hydroxylase in normal and malignant colon tissue. Lancet 2001;357:1673-1674.
103. Zehnder D, Bland R, Williams MC, et al. Extrarenal expression of 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3)- 1 alpha-hydroxylase. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2001;86:888-894.
104. Grant WB. Benefits of UVB exposure to reduce the risk of cancer – ecologic studies of cancer mortality rates. Proceedings of the CIE Symposium '04; Light and Health: non-visual effects, 30 Sep.-2 Oct. 2004, Commission International de L'Eclairage, Vienna, Austria, 2004:174-177.
105. Grant WB, Garland CF. A critical review of studies on vitamin D in relation to colorectal cancer. Nutr
106. Devesa SS, Grauman DJ, Blot WJ, et al. Atlas of Cancer Mortality in the United States, 1950-1994. NIH Publication No. 99-4564, 1999. http://cancer.gov/atlasplus/new.html. Accessed January 24, 2005.
107. Grant WB. An ecologic study of dietary and solar ultraviolet-B links to breast carcinoma mortality rates. Cancer 2002;94:272-281.
108. Grant WB. Dietary fiber and colorectal cancer. The Townsend Letter 1999;192:112-113.
109. Giovannucci E. Nutrition, insulin, insulin-like growth factors and cancer. Horm Metab Res 2003;35:694-704.
110. Kaaks R. Nutrition, insulin, IGF-1 metabolism and cancer risk: a summary of epidemiological
evidence. Novartis Found Symp 2004;262:247- 260;discussion 260-268.
111. Huynh H, Pollak M, Zhang JC. Regulation of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) II and IGF binding protein 3 autocrine loop in human PC-3 prostate cancer cells by vitamin D metabolite 1,25(OH)2D3 and its analog EB1089. Int J Oncol 1998;13:137-143.
112. Xie SP, Pirianov G, Colston KW. Vitamin D analogues suppress IGF-I signalling and promote apoptosis in breast cancer cells. Eur J Cancer 1999;35:1717-1723.
113. Hill AB. The environment and disease: association or causation? Proc R Soc Med 1965;58:295-300.
114. Potischman N, Weed DL. Causal criteria in nutritional epidemiology. Am J Clin Nutr 1999;69:1309S-1314S.
115. Chandra G, Selvaraj P, Jawahar MS, et al. Effect of vitamin D3 on phagocytic potential of macrophages with live Mycobacterium tuberculosis and lymphoproliferative response in pulmonary tuberculosis. J Clin Immunol 2004;24:249-257.
116. Chan TY. Vitamin D deficiency and susceptibility to tuberculosis. Calcif Tissue Int 2000;66:476-478.
117. Roth DE, Soto G, Arenas F, et al. Association between vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms and response to treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis. J Infect Dis 2004;190:920-927.
118. Holick MF. The photobiology of vitamin D and its consequences for humans. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1985;453:1-13.
119. Holick MF. Environmental factors that influence the cutaneous production of vitamin D. Am J Clin Nutr 1995;61:638S-645S.
120. Holick MF. Photosynthesis of vitamin D in the skin: effect of environmental and life-style variables. Fed Proc 1987;46:1876-1882.
121. Holick MF. Vitamin D and bone health. J Nutr 1996;126:1159S-1164S.
122. Atli T, Gullu S, Uysal AR, Erdogan G. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and effects of ultraviolet light on vitamin D levels in elderly Turkish population. Arch Gerontol Geriatr 2005;40:53-60.
123. Tangpricha V, Koutkia P, Rieke SM, et al. Fortification of orange juice with vitamin D: a novel approach for enhancing vitamin D nutritional health. Am J Clin Nutr 2003;77:1478-1483.
124. Newmark HL, Heaney RP, Lachance PA. Should calcium and vitamin D be added to the current enrichment program for cereal-grain products? Am J Clin Nutr 2004;80:264-270.
125. Moore C, Murphy MM, Keast DR, Holick MF. Vitamin D intake in the United States. J Am Diet Assoc 2004;104:980-983.
126. Andersen R, Molgaard C, Skovgaard LT, et al. Teenage girls and elderly women living in northern Europe have low winter vitamin D status. Eur J Clin Nutr 2005;59:533-541.
127. Tsuji K, Harashima E, Nakagawa Y, et al. Timelag effect of dietary fiber and fat intake ratio on Japanese colon cancer mortality. Biomed Environ Sci 1996;9:223-228.
128. Quadrilatero J, Hoffman-Goetz L. Physical activity and colon cancer. A systematic review of potential mechanisms. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 2003;43:121-138.
129. Westerlind KC. Physical activity and cancer prevention – mechanisms. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2003;35:1834-1840.
130. Geigl JB, Langer S, Barwisch S, et al. Analysis of gene expression patterns and chromosomal changes associated with aging. Cancer Res 2004;64:8550- 8557.
131. Kirkland JL. The biology of senescence: potential for prevention of disease. Clin Geriatr Med 2002;18:383-405.
132. Jiang F, Bao J, Li P, et al. Induction of ovarian cancer cell apoptosis by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 through the down-regulation of telomerase. J Biol Chem 2004;279:53213-53221.
133. Kubuki Y, Suzuki M, Sasaki H, et al. Telomerase activity and telomere length as prognostic factors of adult T-cell leukemia. Leuk Lymphoma 2005;46:393-399.
134. Dhesi JK, Jackson SH, Bearne LM, et al. Vitamin D supplementation improves neuromuscular function in older people who fall. Age Ageing 2004;33:589-595.
135. Gallagher JC. The effects of calcitriol on falls and fractures and physical performance tests. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2004;89-90:497-501.
136. Feskanich D, Willett WC, Colditz GA. Calcium, vitamin D, milk consumption, and hip fractures: a prospective study among postmenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr 2003;77:504-511.
137. Malabanan AO, Holick MF. Vitamin D and bone health in postmenopausal women. J Womens Health (Larchmt) 2003;12:151-156.
138. Kai MC, Anderson M, Lau EM. Exercise interventions: defusing the world's osteoporosis time bomb. Bull World Health Organ 2003;81:827-830.
139. Krall EA, Wehler C, Garcia RI, et al. Calcium and vitamin D supplements reduce tooth loss in the elderly. Am J Med 2001;111:452-456.
140. Heaney RP. Functional indices of vitamin D status and ramifications of vitamin D deficiency. Am J Clin Nutr 2004;80:1706S-1709S.
141. Vieth R. Why the optimal requirement for vitamin D3 is probably much higher than what is officially recommended for adults. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2004;89-90:575-579.
142. Hollis BW. Circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels indicative of vitamin D sufficiency: implications for establishing a new effective dietary intake recommendation for vitamin D. J Nutr 2005;135:317-322.
143. Hanley DA, Davison KS. Vitamin D insufficiency in North America. J Nutr 2005;135:332-337.
144. Chapuy MC, Preziosi P, Maamer M, et al. Prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency in an adult normal population. Osteoporos Int 1997;7:439-443.
145. Tangpricha V, Pearce EN, Chen TC, Holick MF. Vitamin D insufficiency among free-living healthy young adults. Am J Med 2002;112:659-662.
146. Vieth R, Ladak Y, Walfish PG. Age-related changes in the 25-hydroxyvitamin D versus parathyroid hormone relationship suggest a different reason why older adults require more vitamin D. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2003;88:185-191.
147. Dawson-Hughes B. Racial/ethnic considerations in making recommendations for vitamin D for adult and elderly men and women. Am J Clin Nutr 2004;80:1763S-1766S.
148. Wortsman J, Matsuoka LY, Chen TC, et al. Decreased bioavailability of vitamin D in obesity. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;72:690-693. Erratum in: Am J Clin Nutr 2003;77:1342.
149. Di Munno O, Mazzantini M, Delle Sedie A, et al. Risk factors for osteoporosis in female patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Lupus 2004;13:724-730.
150. Walker-Bone K, Wood A, Hull R, et al. The prevention and treatment of glucocorticoidinduced osteoporosis in clinical practice. Clin Med 2004;4:431-436.
151. Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes, Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press; 1997.
152. Levis S, Gomez A, Jimenez C, et al. Vitamin D deficiency and seasonal variation in an adult south Florida population. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2005;90:1557-1562.
153. Nutrition Monitoring Division, Human Nutrition Information Service, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Food and Nutrient Intakes: Individuals in Four Regions, Year 1977-78, Hyattsville, MD, Report No. I-3, 1985.
154. Rapuri PB, Kinyamu HK, Gallagher JC, Haynatzka V. Seasonal changes in calciotropic hormones, bone markers, and bone mineral density in elderly women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2002;87:2024-2032.
155. Jacques PF, Felson DT, Tucker KL, et al. Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D and its determinants in an elderly population sample. Am J Clin Nutr 1997;66:929-936.
156. Harris SS, Dawson-Hughes B. Seasonal changes in plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations of young American black and white women. Am J Clin Nutr 1998;67:1232-1236.
157. Vieth R, Cole DE, Hawker GA, et al. Wintertime vitamin D insufficiency is common in young Canadian women, and their vitamin D intake does not prevent it. Eur J Clin Nutr 2001;55:1091-1097.
158. Haney EM, Stadler D, Bliziotes MM. Vitamin D insufficiency in internal medicine residents. Calcif Tissue Int 2005;76:11-16.
159. Guillemant J, Taupin P, Le HT, et al. Vitamin D status during puberty in French healthy male adolescents. Osteoporos Int 1999;10:222-225.
160. Rucker D, Allan JA, Fick GH, Hanley DA. Vitamin D insufficiency in a population of healthy western Canadians. CMAJ 2002;166:1517-1524. Erratum in: CMAJ 2002;167:850.
161. Ovesen L, Andersen R, Jakobsen J. Geographical differences in vitamin D status, with particular reference to European countries. Proc Nutr Soc 2003;62:813-821.
162. Heaney RP, Davies KM, Chen TC, et al. Human serum 25-hydroxycholecalciferol response to extended oral dosing with cholecalciferol. Am J Clin Nutr 2003;77:204-210. Erratum in: Am J Clin Nutr 2003;78:1047.
163. Meier C, Woitge HW, Witte K, et al. Supplementation with oral vitamin D3 and calcium during winter prevents seasonal bone loss: a randomized controlled open-label prospective trial. J Bone Miner Res 2004;19:1221-1230.
164. Vieth R, Chan PC, MacFarlane GD. Efficacy and safety of vitamin D3 intake exceeding the lowest observed adverse effect level. Am J Clin Nutr 2001;73:288-294.
165. Vieth R, Kimball S, Hu A, Walfish PG. Randomized comparison of the effects of the vitamin D3 adequate intake versus 100 mcg (4000 IU) per day on biochemical responses and the wellbeing of patients. Nutr J 2004;3:8.
166. Tuohimaa P, Tenkanen L, Ahonen M, et al. Both high and low levels of blood vitamin D are associated with a higher prostate cancer risk: a longitudinal, nested case-control study in the Nordic countries. Int J Cancer 2004;108:104-108.
167. Grant WB. Geographic variation of prostate cancer mortality rates in the United States: implications for prostate cancer risk related to vitamin D. Int J Cancer 2004;111:470-471.
168. Lou YR, Qiao S, Talonpoika R, et al. The role of vitamin D3 metabolism in prostate cancer. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2004;92:317-325.
169. Moon SJ, Fryer AA, Strange RC. Ultraviolet radiation: effects on risks of prostate cancer and other internal cancers. Mutat Res 2005;571:207-219.
170. Armstrong BK, Kricker A. The epidemiology of UV induced skin cancer. J Photochem Photobiol B 2001;63:8-18.
171. Wang SQ, Setlow R, Berwick M, et al. Ultraviolet A and melanoma: a review. J Am Acad Dermatol 2001;44:837-846.
172. Garland CF, Garland FC, Gorham ED. Epidemiologic evidence for different roles of ultraviolet A and B radiation in melanoma mortality rates. Ann Epidemiol 2003;13:395-404.
173. Kennedy C, Bajdik CD, Willemze R, et al. The influence of painful sunburns and lifetime sun exposure on the risk of actinic keratoses, seborrheic warts, melanocytic nevi, atypical nevi, and skin cancer. J Invest Dermatol 2003;120:1087-1093.
174. Berwick M, Armstrong BK, Ben-Porat L, et al. Sun exposure and mortality from melanoma. J Natl Cancer Inst 2005;97:195-199.
175. Gandini S, Sera F, Cattaruzza MS, et al. Metaanalysis of risk factors for cutaneous melanoma: II. Sun exposure. Eur J Cancer 2005;41:45-60.
176. Millen AE, Tucker MA, Hartge P, et al. Diet and melanoma in a case-control study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2004;13:1042-1051.
177. Green A, Williams G, Neale R, et al. Daily sunscreen application and beta carotene supplementation in prevention of basal-cell and squamous-cell carcinomas of the skin: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 1999;354:723- 729. Erratum in: Lancet 1999;354:1038.
178. Garland CF, Garland FC, Gorham ED. Rising trends in melanoma. An hypothesis concerning sunscreen effectiveness. Ann Epidemiol 1993;3:103-110.
179. Dennis LK, Beane Freeman LE, VanBeek MJ. Sunscreen use and the risk for melanoma: a quantitative review. Ann Intern Med 2003;139:966-978.
180. Autier P. Perspectives in melanoma prevention: the case of sunbeds. Eur J Cancer 2004;40:2367-2376.
181. Terenetskaya I. Two methods for direct assessment of the vitamin D synthetic capacity of sunlight and artificial UV sources. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2004;89-90:623-626.
182. Pauly D, Christensen V, Guenette S, et al. Towards sustainability in world fisheries. Nature 2002;418:689-695.
183. Grant WB. An ecologic study of dietary links to prostate cancer. Altern Med Rev 1999;4:162-169.
184. Adebamowo CA, Spiegelman D, Danby FW, et al. High school dietary dairy intake and teenage acne. J Am Acad Dermatol 2005;52:207-214.
185. Kurowska EM, Spence JD, Jordan J, et al. HDLcholesterol- raising effect of orange juice in subjects with hypercholesterolemia. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;72:1095-1100.
186. Slavin J. Why whole grains are protective:biological mechanisms. Proc Nutr Soc 2003;62:129-134.
187. Jacobs DR Jr, Gallaher DD. Whole grain intake and cardiovascular disease: a review. Curr Atheroscler Rep 2004;6:415-423.
188. Jensen MK, Koh-Banerjee P, Hu FB, et al. Intakes of whole grains, bran, and germ and the risk of coronary heart disease in men. Am J Clin Nutr 2004;80:1492-1499.
189. Melhus H, Michaelsson K, Kindmark A, et al. Excessive dietary intake of vitamin A is associated with reduced bone mineral density and increased risk for hip fracture. Ann Intern Med 1998;129:770- 778.
190. Feskanich D, Singh V, Willett WC, Colditz GA. Vitamin A intake and hip fractures among postmenopausal women. JAMA 2002;287:47-54.
191. Fairfield KM, Fletcher RH. Vitamins for chronic disease prevention in adults: scientific review. JAMA 2002;287:3116-3126. Erratum in: JAMA2002;288:1720.
192. Egan KM, Sosman JA, Blot WJ. Sunlight and reduced risk of cancer: is the real story vitamin D? J Natl Cancer Inst 2005;97:161-163.
193. Weaver CM, Fleet JC. Vitamin D requirements: current and future. Am J Clin Nutr 2004;80:1735S- 1739S. Erratum in: Am J Clin Nutr 2005;81:729.
194. Whiting SJ, Calvo MS. Dietary recommendations for vitamin D: a critical need for functional end points to establish an estimated average requirement. J Nutr 2005;135:304-309.
195. Calvo MS, Whiting SJ, Barton CN. Vitamin D intake: a global perspective of current status. J Nutr 2005;135:310-316.
196. Saraiya M, Hall HI, Uhler RJ. Sunburn prevalence among adults in the United States, 1999. Am J Prev Med 2002;23:91-97.
198. van der Wielen RP, Lowik MR, van den Berg H, et al. Serum vitamin D concentrations among elderly people in Europe. Lancet 1995;346:207-210.
199. Glerup H, Mikkelsen K, Poulsen L, et al. Commonly recommended daily intake of vitamin D is not sufficient if sunlight exposure is limited. J Intern Med 2000;247:260-268.
200. MacFarlane GD, Sackrison JL Jr, Body JJ, et al. Hypovitaminosis D in a normal, apparently healthy urban European population. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2004;89-90:621-622.
201. Smith C, Cowan C, Sensenig A, et al. Health spending growth slows in 2003. Health Aff (Millwood) 2005;24:185-194.
202. Robsahm TE, Tretli S, Dahlback A, Moan J. Vitamin D3 from sunlight may improve the prognosis of breast-, colon- and prostate cancer (Norway). Cancer Causes Control 2004;15:149-158.
203. Moan J, Porojnicu AC, Robsahm TE, et al. Solar radiation, vitamin D and survival rate of colon cancer in Norway. J Photochem Photobiol B 2005;78:189-193.
204. Woo TC, Choo R, Jamieson M, et al. Pilot study: potential role of vitamin D (cholecalciferol) in patients with PSA relapse after definitive therapy. Nutr Cancer 2005;51:32-36.
205. Zhou W, Suk R, Liu G, et al. Vitamin D predicts overall survival in early stage non-small cell lung cancer patients. Am Assoc Cancer Res Annual Meeting, Abstract LB-231, 2005.
206. Smart CR. Bladder cancer survival statistics. J Occup Med 1990;32:926-928.