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A cross-sectional epidemiological method was adopted to investigate the four main urban …


Biology Articles » Hydrobiology » Bacteriological assessment of urban water sources in Khamis Mushait Governorate, southwestern Saudi Arabia » Conclusion

Conclusion
- Bacteriological assessment of urban water sources in Khamis Mushait Governorate, southwestern Saudi Arabia

Water derived from traditional sources (wells) showed increases in most of the investigated bacteriological parameters, followed by surface water as compared to bottled or desalinated water. This may be highly attributed to the fact that well and surface water of Khamis Mushait Governorate is at risk of contamination as indicated by the higher levels of most bacteriological parameters. Moreover, well water is exposed to point sources of pollution such as septic wells and domestic and farming effluents as well as to soil with a high humus content [4,11]. The lower bacteriological characteristics in samples of bottled water indicate that it is satisfactory for human drinking purposes. Nevertheless, contamination of desalinated water may occur during its transportation from the desalination plant to the consumer or during storage in a house reservoir. Improving and expanding the existing water treatment and sanitation systems is more likely to provide good, safe, and sustainable sources of water in the long term. Strict hygienic measures should be applied to improve water quality and to avoid deleterious effects on public health [3,6,11]. This could be achieved by upgrading current sewage stations (i.e. to deal with stages 3 and 4) and adopting a periodical monitoring programmes to detect sewage pollution in water supplies, [23,5-7,14] thus eliminating the possibility that disease may be transmitted by their use or during their running through the local hydrological network and valleys as have been noticed via satellite digital mapping of the study area [17,4,6].

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