Login

Join for Free!
119202 members
table of contents table of contents

Biology Articles » Zoology » Ammonia excretion in aquatic and terrestrial crabs » References

References
- Ammonia excretion in aquatic and terrestrial crabs


Adamczewska, A. M., van Aardt, W. J. and Morris, S. (1997). The role of lungs and gills in an African freshwater crab Potamonautes warreni (Calman), (Decapoda, Potamoidea) in gas exchange with water, with air and during exercise. J. Crust. Biol. 17,596 -608.

Atanassov, C. L., Muller, C. D., Sarhan, S., Knodgen, B., Rebel, G. and Seiler, N. (1994). Effect of ammonia on endocytosis, cytokine production and lysosomal enzyme activity of a microglial cell line. Res. Immunol. 145,277 -288.

Atanassov, C. L., Muller, C. D., Dumont, S., Rebel, G., Poindron, P. and Seiler, N. (1995). Effect of ammonia on endocytosis and cytokine production by immortalized human microglia and astroglia cells. Neurochem. Int. 27,417 -424.

Avenet, P. and Lignon, J. M. (1985). Ionic permeabilities of gill lamina cuticle of the crayfish Astacus leptydactylus (E). J. Physiol. 363,377 -401.

Bakouh, N., Benjelloun, F., Hulin, P., Brouillard, F., Edelman, A., Cherif-Zahar, B. and Planelles, G. (2004). NH3 is involved in the NH4+ transport induced by the functional expression of the Human Rh C glycoprotein. J. Biol. Chem. 279,15975 -15983.

Binstock, L. and Lecar, H. (1969). Ammonium ion currents in the squid giant axon. J. Gen. Physiol. 53,342 -361.

Böttcher, K. and Siebers, D. (1993). Biochemistry, localization, and physiology of carbonic anhydrase in the gills of euryhaline crabs. J. Exp. Zool. 265,398 -409.

Burckhardt, B.-C. and Frömter, E. (1992). Pathways of NH3/NH4+ permeation across Xenopus laevis oocyte cell membrane. Pflügers Arch. 420,83 -86.

Burnett, L. E. and McMahon, B. R. (1985). Facilitation of CO2 excretion by carbonic anhydrase located on the surface of the basal membrane of crab gill epithelium. Respir. Physiol. 62,341 -348.

Burnett, L. E. and Towle, D. W. (1990). Sodium ion uptake by perfused gills of the blue crab Callinectes sapidus: Effect of ouabain and amiloride. J. Exp. Biol. 149,293 -305.

Butterworth, R. F. (2002). Pathophysiology of hepatic encephalopathy: a new look at ammonia. Metab. Brain Dis. 17,221 -227.

Cameron, J. N. and Batterton, C. V. (1978). Antennal gland function in the freshwater crab Callinectes sapidus: Water, electrolyte, acid-base, and ammonia excretion. J. Comp. Physiol. 123,143 -148.

Cameron, J. N. and Heisler, N. (1983). Studies of ammonia in the rainbow trout: Physicochemical parameters, acid-base behaviour and respiratory clearance. J. Exp. Biol. 105,107 -125.

Chen, J. C. and Lin, C. Y. (1992). Lethal effects of ammonia on Penaeus chinensis Osbeck juveniles at different salinity levels. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 156,139 -148.

Claybrook, D. L. (1983). The biology of crustacea. In Internal Anatomy and Physiological Regulation, vol. 5 (ed. L. H. Mantel), pp.163 -213. London: Academic Press.

Cooper, A. J. and Plum, F. (1987). Biochemistry and physiology of brain ammonia. Physiol. Rev. 67,440 -519.

Copeland, D. E. and Fitzjarrell, A. T. (1968). The salt absorbing cells in the gills of the blue crab (Callinectes sapidus, Rathbun) with notes on modified mitochondria. Z. Zellforsch. 92,1 -22.

Corotto, F. S. and Holliday, C. W. (1996). Branchial Na,K-ATPase and osmoregulation in the purple shore crab, Hemigrapsus nudus (Dana). Comp. Biochem. Physiol. A 113,361 -368.

Corpet, F. (1988). Multiple sequence alignment with hierarchical clustering. Nucl. Acids Res. 16,10881 -10890.

D'Orazio, S. E. and Holliday, C. W. (1985). Gill NaK-ATPase and osmoregulation in the sand fiddler crab Uca pugilator.Physiol. Zool. 58,364 -373.

Dagg, M. J. (1976). Complete carbon and nitrogen budgets for the carnivorous amphipod Calliopus laeviuculus (Kroyer). Int. Rev. Ges. Hydrobiol. 61,297 -357.

Davie, P. J. F. (2002). Crustacea: Malacostraca: Eucarida (Part 2): Decapoda-Anomura, Brachyura. In Zoological Catalogue of Australia, vol.19.3B (ed. A. Wells and W. W. K. Houston). Melbourne, Australia: CSIRO Publishing

deFur, P. L. and McMahon, B. R. (1984). Physiological compensation to short-term air exposure in red rock crabs, Cancer productus Randall, from littoral and sublittoral habitats. 2. Acid-base-balance. Physiol. Zool. 57,151 -160.

Dela-Cruz, J and Morris, S. (1997). Water and ion balance and nitrogenous excretion as limitations to terrestrial excursion in the Christmas Island Blue Crab, Cardisoma hirtipes (Dana). J. Exp. Zool. 279,537 -548.

DeVries, M. C. and Wolcott, D. L. (1993). Gaseous ammonia evolution is coupled to reprocessing of urine at the gills of ghost crabs. J. Exp. Zool. 267,97 -103.

DeVries, M. C., Wolcott, D. L. and Holliday, C. W. (1994). High ammonia and low pH in the urine of the ghost crab, Ocypode quadrata. Biol. Bull. 186,342 -348.

Durand, F. and Regnault, M. (1998). Nitrogen metabolism of two portunid crabs, Carcinus maenas and Necora puber, during prolonged air exposure and subsequent recovery: A comparative study. J. Exp. Biol. 201,2515 -2528.

Durand, F., Devillers, N., Lallier, F. H. and Regnault, M. (2000). Nitrogen excretion and changes in blood components during emersion of the subtidal spider crab Maia squinado (L.) Comp. Biochem. Physiol. A 127,259 -271.

Eladari, D., Cheval, L., Quentin, F., Bertrand, O., Mouro, I., Cherif-Zahar, B., Cartron, J.-P., Paillard, M., Doucet, A. and Chambrey, R. (2002). Expression of RhCG, a new putative NH3/NH4+ transporter, along the rat nephron. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 13,1999 -2008.

Enoksson, V. and Samuelsson, M.-O. (1987). Nitrification and dissimilatory ammonium production and the effects on nitrogen flux over the sediment-water interface in bioturbated coastal sediments. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 36,181 -189.

Furriel, R. P. M., Masui, D. C., McNamara, J. C. and Leone, F. A. (2004). Modulation of gill Na+, K+-ATPase activity by ammonium ions: putative coupling of nitrogen excretion and ion uptake in the freshwater shrimp Macrobrachium olfersii. J. Exp. Zool. 301A,63 -74.

Garvin, J. L., Burg, M. B. and Knepper, M. A. (1987). NH3 and NH4+ transport by rabbit renal proximal straight tubules. Am. J. Physiol. 252,F232 -F239.

Goodman, S. H. and Cavey, M. J. (1990). Organization of a phyllobranchiate gill from the green shore crab Carcinus maenas (Crustacea, Decapoda). Cell Tissue Res. 260,495 -505.

Greenaway, P. (1988). Ion and water balance. In The Biology of Land Crabs (ed. W. W. Burggren and B. R. McMahon), pp. 211-248. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Greenaway, P. (1991). Nitrogenous excretion in aquatic and terrestrial Crustacea. Mem. Qld. Mus. 31,215 -227.

Greenaway, P. (1999). Physiological diversity and the colonisation of land. In Proceedings of the Fourth International Crustacean Congress, pp.823 -842 (ed. F. R. Schram and J. C. von Vaupel Klein), Amsterdam, The Netherlands, July 20-24, 1998, vol.I . Leiden: Brill Academic Publishers.

Greenaway, P (2003). Terrestrial adaptations in the Anomura (Crustacea: Decapoda) Mem. Mus. Victoria 60, 13-26.

Greenaway, P. and MacMillen, R. E. (1978). Salt and water balance in the terrestrial phase of the inland crab Holthuisana (Austrothelphusa) transversa Martens (Parathelphusoidea: Sundathelphusidae). Physiol. Zool. 51,217 -229.

Greenaway, P. and Morris, S. (1989). Adaptations to a terrestrial existence by the robber crab, Birgus latro L. III. nitrogenous excretion. J. Exp. Biol. 143,333 -346.

Greenaway, P. and Nakamura, T. (1991). Nitrogenous excretion in 2 terrestrial crabs (Gecarcoidea natalis and Geograpsus grayi). Physiol. Zool. 64,767 -786.

Harris, R. R., Coley, S., Collins, S. and McCabe, R. (2001). Ammonia uptake and its effects on ionoregulation in the freshwater crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus (Dana). J. Comp. Physiol. B 171,681 -693.

Hartenstein, R. (1970). Nitrogen metabolism in non-insect arthropods. In Comparative Biochemistry of Nitrogen Metabolism, vol. 1 (ed. J. W. Campbell), pp. 299-385. New York: Academic Press.

Hazel, R. H., Burkhead, C. E. and Huggins, D. G. (1982). Development of water quality criteria for ammonia and total residual chlorine for the protection of aquatic life in Two Johnson County, Kansas Streams. In Proceedings of 5th Annual Symposium Aquatic Toxicology (ed. J. G. Pearson, R. B. Foster and W. E. Bishop), pp. 381-388. ASTM STP 766, Philadelphia.

Henry, R. P. (1988). Subcellular distribution of carbonic anhydrase activity in the gills of the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus. J. Exp. Zool. 245,1 -8.

Henry, R. P. and Wheatly, M. G. (1992). Interaction of respiration, ion regulation, and acid-base balance in the everyday life of aquatic crustaceans. Am. Zool. 32,407 -416.

Henry, R. P., Weihrauch, D., Gehnrich, S. and Towle, D. W. (2003). Salinity-mediated induction of carbonic anhydrase in the gills of the euryhaline green crab, Carcinus maenas. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. A. 136,243 -258.

Hrnjez, B. J., Song, J. C., Prasad, M., Mayol, J. M. and Matthews, J. B. (1999). Ammonia blockade of intestinal epithelial K+ conductance. Am. J. Physiol. 277,G521 -G532.

King, F. D., Cucci, T. L. and Bidigare, R. R. (1985). A pathway of nitrogen metabolism in marine decapod crabs. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. B 80,401 -403.

Knepper, M. A., Packer, R. and Good, D. W. (1989). Ammonium transport in the kidney. Physiol. Rev. 69,179 -249.

Kormanik, G. A. and Cameron, J. N. (1981). Ammonia excretion in the seawater blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) occurs by diffusion, and not Na+/NH4+ exchange. J. Comp. Physiol. B 141,457 -462.

Koroleff, F. (1983). Determination of ammonia. In Methods of Seawater Analysis (ed. K. Grasshoff, M. Ehrhart and K. Kremling), pp. 150-151. Weinheim: Verlag Chemie GmbH.

Krishnamoorthy, R. V and Srihari, K (1973). Changes in the patterns of the freshwater field crab Paratelphusa hydrodromous upon adaptation to higher salinities. Mar. Biol. 21,341 -348.

Laursen, H. and Diemer, N. H. (1997). Morphometric studies of rat glial cell ultrastructure after urease-induced hyperammonaemia. Neuropathol. Appl. Neurobiol. 5, 345-362.

Lignon, J. M. (1987). Ionic permeabilities of the isolated gill cuticle of the shore crab Carcinus maenas. J. Exp. Biol. 131,159 -174.

Lin, H. C., Su, Y. C. and Su, S. H. (2002). A comparative study of osmoregulation in four fiddler crabs (Ocypodidae: Uca). Zoolog. Sci. 19,643 -650.

Linton, S. M. and Greenaway, P. (1995). Nitrogenous excretion in the amphibious crab Holthuisana transversa under wet and dry conditions. J. Crust. Biol. 15,633 -644.

Linton, S. M. and Greenaway, P. (1997a). Urate deposits in the gecarcinid land crab Gecarcoidea natalis are synthesised de novo from excess dietary nitrogen. J. Exp. Biol. 200,2347 -2354.

Linton, S. M. and Greenaway, P. (1997b). Intracellular purine deposits in the gecarcinid land crab Gecarcoidea natalis. J. Morph. 231,101 -110.

Linton, S. M. and Greenaway, P. (1998). Enzymes of urate synthesis and catabolism in the gecarcinid land crab Gecarcoidea natalis. Exp. Biol. Online 3:5 .

Linton, S. M. and Greenaway, P. (2000). The nitrogen requirements and dietary nitrogen utilization for the gecarcinid land crab Gecarcoidea natalis. Physiol. Biochem. Zool. Biochem. 73,209 -218.

Lohse, L., Malschaert, J. F. P., Slomp, C. P., Helder, W. and Van Raaphorst, W. (1993). Nitrogen cycling in North Sea sediments: Interaction of denitrification and nitrification in offshore and coastal areas. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 101,283 -296.

Lopez Mananes, A. A., Magnoni, L. J. and Goldemberg, A. L. (2000). Branchial carbonic anhydrase (CA) of gills of Chasmagnathus granulata (Crustacea Decapoda). Comp. Biochem. Physiol. B 127,85 -95.

Lucu, C. (1989). Evidence for Cl exchangers in perfused Carcinus gills. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. A 92,415 -420.

Lucu, C. (1990). Ionic mechanisms in crustacean gill epithelia. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. A 97,297 -306.

Lucu, C., Devescovi, M. and Siebers, D. (1989). Do amiloride and oubain affect ammonia fluxes in perfused Carcinus gill epithelia? J. Exp. Zool. 249, 1-5.

Luquet, C. M., Postel, U., Halperin, J., Urcola, M. R., Marques, R. and Siebers, D. (2002). Transepithelial potential differences and Na+ flux in isolated perfused gills of the crab Chasmagnathus granulatus (Grapsidae) acclimated to hyper- and hypo-salinity. J. Exp. Biol. 205, 71-77.

Mantel, L. H. and Farmer, I. L. (1983). Osmotic and ionic regulation. In The biology of Crustacea, vol. 5 (ed. L. H. Mantel), pp.54 -126. London: Academic Press.

Marcaida, G., Felipo, V., Hermenegildo, C., Minana, M. D. and Grisolia, S. (1992). Acute ammonia toxicity is mediated by NMDA type of glutamine receptors. FEBS Lett. 296, 67-68.

Marini, A. M., Matassi, G., Raynal, V., Andre, B., Cartron, J. P. and Cherif-Zahar, B. (2000). The human Rhesus-associated RhAG protein and a kidney homologue promote ammonium transport in yeast. Nat. Genet. 26,341 -344.

Masui, D. C., Furriel, R. P., McNamara, J. C., Mantelatto, F. L. and Leone, F. A. (2002). Modulation by ammonium ions of gill microsomal (Na+,K+)-ATPase in the swimming crab Callinectes danae: A possible mechanism for regulation of ammonia excretion. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. C 132,471 -482.

Morris, S. (2001). Neuroendocrine regulation of osmoregulation and the evolution of air-breathing in decapod crustaceans. J. Exp. Biol. 204,979 -989.

Morris, S. (2002). The ecophysiology of air-breathing in crabs with special reference to Gecarcoidea natalis.Comp. Biochem. Physiol. B 131,559 -570.

Morris, S. and Ahern, M. D. (2003). Regulation of urine reprocessing in the maintenance of sodium and water balance in the terrestrial Christmas Island red crab Gecarcoidea natalis investigated under field conditions. J. Exp. Biol. 206,2869 -2881.

Morris, S. and van Aardt, W. J. (1998). Salt and water relations, and nitrogen excretion, in the amphibious African freshwater crab Potamonautes warreni in water and in air. J. Exp. Biol. 201,883 -893.

Morris, S., Greenaway, P., Adamczewska, A. M. and Ahern, M. D. (2000). Adaptations to a terrestrial existence in the robber crab Birgus latro.IX. Hormonal control of post-renal urine reprocessing and salt balance in the branchial chamber. J. Exp. Biol. 203,389 -396.

O'Donnell M. J. and Wright J. C. (1995). Nitrogen excretion in terrestrial crustaceans. In Nitrogen Metabolism and Excretion (ed. P. J. Walsh and P. Wright), pp.105 -118. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

Onken, H. and McNamara, J. C. (2002). Hyperosmoregulation in the red freshwater crab Dilocarcinus pagei (Brachyura, Trichodactylidae): Structural and functional asymmetries of the posterior gills. J. Exp. Biol. 205,167 -175.

Onken, H. and Putzenlechner, M. (1995). A V-ATPase drives active, electrogenic and Na+-independent Cl absorption across the gills of Eriocheir sinensis.J. Exp. Biol. 198,767 -774.

Onken, H. and Riestenpatt, S. (2002). Ion transport across posterior gills of hyperosmoregulating shore crabs (Carcinus maenas): Amiloride blocks the cuticular Na+ conductance and induces current-noise. J. Exp. Biol. 205,523 -531.

Ostrensky, A., Marchiori, M. A. and Poersch, L. H. (1992). Aquatic toxicity of ammonia in the metamorphosis of post-larvae Penaeus paulensis Perez-Farfante, 1967. An. Acad. Bras. Cienc. 64(4),383 -389.

Péqueux, A. and Gilles, R. (1981). Na+-fluxes across isolated perfused gills of the Chinese crab Eriocheir sinensis. J. Exp. Biol. 92,173 -186.

Péqueux, A., Marchal, A., Wanson, S. and Gilles, R. (1984). Kinetic characteristics and specific activity of (Na++K+)-ATPase in the euryhaline crab Eriocheir sinensis during acclimation. Mar. Biol. Lett. 5, 35-45.

Pressley, T. A., Graves, J. S. and Krall, A. R. (1981). Amiloride-sensitive ammonium and sodium ion transport in the blue crab. Am. J. Physiol. 241,R370 -R378.

Regnault, M. (1987). Nitrogen excretion in marine and fresh-water crustacea. Biol. Rev. 62, 1-24.

Regnault, M. (1992). Effect of air exposure on nitrogen-metabolism in the crab Cancer pagurus. J. Exp. Zool. 264,372 -380.

Regnault, M. (1994). Effect of air exposure on ammonia excretion and ammonia content of branchial water of the crab Cancer pagurus. J. Exp. Zool. 268,208 -217.

Riestenpatt, S., Onken, H. and Siebers, D. (1996). Active absorption of Na+ and Cl across the gill epithelium of the shore crab Carcinus maenas: Voltage-clamp and ion-flux studies. J. Exp. Biol. 199,1545 -1554.

Schleich, C. E., Goldemberg, L. A. and Lopez Mananes, A. A. (2001). Salinity dependent Na+-K+ATPase activity in gills of the euryhaline crab Chasmagnathus granulata.Gen. Physiol. Biophys. 20,255 -266.

Schoffeniels, E. and Gilles, R. (1970). Nitrogenous constituents and nitrogen metabolism in arthropods. In Chemical Zoology, vol. 5 (ed. M. Florkin and B. Sheer), pp. 199-227. New York: Academic Press.

Siebers, D., Riestenpatt, S., Weihrauch, D. and Lucu, C. (1995). Exkretion von Stickstoff über die Kiemen der Strandkrabbe Carcinus maenas. Verh. Dtsch. Zool. Ges. 88, 134.

Singh, S. K., Binder, H. J., Geibel, J. P. and Boron, W. (1995). An apical permeability barrier to NH3/NH4+ in isolated, perfused colonic crypts. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 92,11573 -11577.

Spaargaren, D. H. (1990). The effect of environmental ammonia concentrations on the ion-exchange of shore crabs, Carcinus maenas (L.). Comp. Biochem. Physiol. C 97,87 -91.

Taylor, H. H. and Greenaway, P. (2002). Osmoregulation in the terrestrial Christmas Island red crab Gecarcoidea natalis (Brachyura: Gecarcinidae): Modulation of branchial chloride uptake from the urine. J. Exp. Biol. 205,3251 -3260.

Towle, D. W. (1981). Role of Na++K+-ATPase in ion regulation by marine and estuarine animals. Mar. Biol. Lett. 2, 107-122.

Towle, D. W. and Hølleland, T. (1987). Ammonium ion substitutes for K+ in ATP-dependent Na+ transport by basolateral membrane vesicles. Am. J. Physiol. 252,R479 -R489.

Towle, D. W. and Kays, W. T. (1986). Basolateral localization of Na++K+-ATPase in gill epithelium of two osmoregulating crabs, Callinectes sapidus and Carcinus maenas. J. Exp. Zool. 239,311 -318.

Towle, D. W. and Weihrauch, D. (2001). Osmoregulation by gills of euryhaline crabs: molecular analysis of transporters. Am. Zool. 41,770 -780.

Towle, D. W., Rushton, M. E., Heidysch, D., Magnani, J. J., Rose, M. J., Amstutz, A., Jordan, M. K., Shearer, D. W. and Wu, W. S. (1997). Sodium/proton antiporter in the euryhaline crab Carcinus maenas: Molecular cloning, expression and tissue distribution. J. Exp. Biol. 200,1003 -1014.

Towle, D. W., Paulsen, R. S., Weihrauch, D., Kordylewski, M., Salvador, C., Lignot, J. H. and Spanings-Pierrot, C. (2001). Na++K+-ATPase in gills of the blue crab Callinectes sapidus: cDNA sequencing and salinity-related expression of {alpha}-subunit mRNA and protein. J. Exp. Biol. 204,4005 -4012.

Varley, D. G. and Greenaway, P. (1994). Nitrogenous excretion in the terrestrial carnivorous crab Geograpsus grayi – site and mechanism of excretion. J. Exp. Biol. 190,179 -193.

Vitale, A. M., Monserrat, J. M., Castilho, P. and Rodriguez, E. M. (1999). Inhibitory effects of cadmium on carbonic anhydrase activity and ionic regulation of the estuarine crab Chasmagnathus granulata (Decapoda, Grapsidae). Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 122C,121 -129.

Weihrauch, D. and Towle, D. W. (2000). Na+/H+-exchanger and Na+/K+/2Cl cotransporter are expressed in the gills of the euryhaline Chinese crab Eriocheir sinensis.Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 126B, Suppl.,S158 .

Weihrauch, D., Becker, W., Postel, U., Riestenpatt, S. and Siebers, D. (1998). Active excretion of ammonia across the gills of the shore crab Carcinus maenas and its relation to osmoregulatory ion uptake. J. Comp. Physiol. B 168,364 -376.

Weihrauch, D., Becker, W., Postel, U., Luck-Kopp, S. and Siebers, D. (1999). Potential of active excretion of ammonia in three different haline species of crabs. J. Comp. Physiol. B 169,25 -37.

Weihrauch, D., Ziegler, A., Siebers, D. and Towle, D. W. (2001a). Molecular characterization of V-type H+-ATPase (B-subunit) in gills of euryhaline crabs and its physiological role in osmoregulatory ion uptake. J. Exp. Biol. 204,25 -37.

Weihrauch, D., Marini, A. M. and Towle, D. W. (2001b). Cloning and expression of a putative Rh-like ammonium transporter from gills of the shore crab Carcinus maenas. Am. Zool. 41,1621 .

Weihrauch, D., Ziegler, A., Siebers, D. and Towle, D. W. (2002). Active ammonia excretion across the gills of the green shore crab Carcinus maenas: Participation of Na+/K+-ATPase, V-type H+-ATPase and functional microtubules. J. Exp. Biol. 205,2765 -2775.

Wilkie, M. P. (1997). Mechanisms of ammonia excretion across fish gills. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. A 118, 39-50.

Wilson, R., Wright, P., Munger, S. and Wood, C. (1994). Ammonia excretion in freshwater rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and the importance of gill boundary layer acidification: Lack of evidence for Na+/NH4+ exchange. J. Exp. Biol. 191, 37-58.

Wolcott, D. L. (1991). Nitrogen-excretion is enhanced during urine recycling in two species of terrestrial crab. J. Exp. Zool. 259,181 -187.

Wolcott, T. G. (1992). Water and solute balance in the transition to land. Am. Zool. 32,428 -437.

Wolcott, T. G. and Wolcott, D. L. (1985). Extrarenal modification of urine for ion conservation in ghost crabs, Ocypode quadrata (Fabricius). J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 91,93 -107.

Wolcott, T. G. and Wolcott, D. L. (1991). Ion conservation by reprocessing of urine in the land crab Gecarcinus lateralis (Freminville). Physiol. Zool. 64,344 -361.

Wood, C. M., Boutilier, R. G. and Randall, D. J. (1986). The physiology of dehydration stress in the land crab, Cardisoma carnifex: respiration, ionoregulation, acid-base balance and nitrogenous waste excretion. J. Exp. Biol. 126,271 -296.

Wood, C. M., Matsuo, A. Y., Gonzalez, R. J., Wilson, R. W., Patrick, M. L. and Val, A. L. (2002). Mechanisms of ion transport in Potamotrygon, a stenohaline freshwater elasmobranch native to the ion-poor blackwaters of the Rio Negro. J. Exp. Biol. 205,3039 -3054.

Young-Lai, W. W., Charmantier-Daures, M. and Charmantier, G. (1991). Effect of ammonia on survival and osmoregulation in different life stages of the lobster Homarus americanus. Mar. Biol. 110,293 -300.



rating: 3.00 from 5 votes | updated on: 18 May 2008 | views: 9461 |

Rate article:







excellent!bad…