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Biology Articles » Ecology » Air pollution and lung function among susceptible adult subjects: a panel study » Tables

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- Air pollution and lung function among susceptible adult subjects: a panel study

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Table 1: Characteristics of study subjects and group averages of lung function parameters over the survey periods



Panel




COPD
Asthma
IHD

Variable (unit)
Gender
Obs
Mean
SD
Obs
Mean
SD
Obs
Mean
SD
Age (years)
Male
7
67
11
5
33
15
6
63
11

Female
4
65
7
6
48
10
1
64
-

Total
11
67
9.1
11
41
14
7
64
10
BMI (kg/m2)
Male
7
27
6
5
25
4
6
26
3

Female
4
25
3
6
23
3
1
29
-

Total
11
26
5
11
24
3
7
26
3
FVC (% predicted)
Male
108
63
10
38
113
11
139
81
10

Female
63
61
9
70
116
12
31
80
4

Total
171
63
10
108
115
12
170
81
9
FEV1 (% predicted)
Male
108
45
10
38
94
13
139
84
10

Female
63
47
10
70
96
18
31
84
5

Total
171
45
10
108
95
16
170
84
10
NO in exhaled breath (ppb)
Male



37
66
40




Female



70
42
27




Total



107
50
34



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Table 2: Concentrations of PM, metals from PM2.5, gaseous pollutants, and climatic conditions (1999 spring and winter)

Variable
Unit
Spring
Winter
Overall




Obs
Mean
SD
GMean
IQR
Obs
Mean
SD
GMean
IQR
Mean
SD
GMean
Min
Max
IQR
PM2.5*
μg/m3
32
18.2
5.0
17.4
8.1
30
36.7
24.1
27.8
40.9
27.2
19.4
21.8
4.5
100
22.7
PM10–2.5 *
μg/m3
32
18.7
7.4
17.4
9.0
30
12.3
5.4
11.0
8.3
15.6
7.2
14.0
3.4
39.6
7.1
PM10 *
μg/m3
32
36.9
10.8
35.4
13.1
30
49.0
28.1
40.2
45.3
42.8
21.8
37.6
7.9
123
26.9
Cd
ng/m3
30
0.29
0.09
0.27
0.14
30
0.63
0.50
0.47
0.47
0.46
0.40
0.36
0.09
2.0
0.31
Cr
ng/m3
30
0.90
0.47
0.80
0.61
30
2.8
2.0
2.2
2.7
1.9
1.7
1.3
0.2
9.8
1.6
Fe
ng/m3
30
339
180
303
212
30
227
132
190
208
283
167
240
54.1
893
202
Ni
ng/m3
30
5.1
4.7
3.6
4.2
30
4.6
8.0
2.7
2.5
4.8
6.5
3.1
1.0
42.3
2.8
Pb
ng/m3
30
24.4
9.6
22.2
15.6
30
36.8
23.8
27.7
33.5
30.6
19.0
24.8
2.2
99.8
19.9
Pt
pg/m3
30
5.3
6.8
3.3
3.9
30
4.6
10.3
1.4
2.7
5.0
8.6
2.2
0.05
54.9
3.3
V
ng/m3
30
2.4
1.6
2.0
2.0
30
1.1
0.52
0.95
0.97
1.8
1.4
1.4
0.47
6.3
1.3
Zn
ng/m3
30
28.7
13.0
26.4
15.1
30
63.0
38.2
51.4
58.0
45.8
33.1
36.8
13.9
159
32.9
NO2
μg/m3
32
76.1
13.6
75.0
17.5
35
65.5
13.3
64.0
14.6
70.6
14.4
69.0
27.6
102
20.9
CO
mg/m3
32
2.1
0.3
2.1
0.50
34
12.3
4.9
11.5
6.1
7.4
6.2
5.0
1.6
28.9
10.5
O3
μg/m3
32
70.9
12.5
69.8
16.9
34
16.0
8.1
14.3
10.0
42.6
29.5
30.8
6.6
95.3
58.7
SO2
μg/m3
32
4.7
1.8
4.3
2.5
35
7.9
2.2
7.6
3.9
6.4
2.6
5.8
1.2
11.6
4.0
T
°C
32
23.7
1.9
23.7
3.3
35
9.5
2.1
9.3
2.7
16.3
7.4
14.5
5.3
27.0
14.3
RelHum
%
32
46.5
10.2
45.4
14.0
35
66.7
13.5
65.1
14.0
57.0
15.7
54.8
29.0
87.0
24.0
BarP
mm Hg
32
762
2.6
762
3.4
35
762
7.3
762
12.1
762
5.5
762
748
773
6.6
PM2.5 Indoor§
μg/m3
28
24.7
7.8
23.7
9.0
31
27.0
12.0
24.4
18.8
25.9
10.2
24.1
10.2
56.5
14.4
*Averages of 24 h concentrations measured at 2 locations.
Averages of 24 h concentrations recorded at 5 fixed sites.
Averages of 24 h concentrations recorded at 2 fixed sites.
§Averages of 24 h concentrations measured at 3 study participants' homes per season.

 

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Table 3: Correlations among pollutants and weather variables


PM2.5
PM10–25
PM10
NO2
O3
CO
SO2
T
RelHum
BarP
PM2.5
1









PM10–25
0.34
1








PM10
0.93
0.61
1







NO2
0.43
0.51
0.45
1






O3
-0.51
0.31
-0.36
0.17
1





CO
0.67
-0.09
0.55
0.05
-0.87
1




SO2
0.34
-0.16
0.21
0.01
-0.61
0.65
1



T
-0.31
0.56
-0.10
0.36
0.79
-0.74
-0.56
1


RelHum
0.17
-0.37
0.06
-0.36
-0.62
0.54
0.43
-0.48
1

BarP
0.65
0.24
0.56
0.47
-0.15
0.28
0.18
-0.15
-0.17
1
Table 4
Variations in respiratory function per unit increase of air pollutant concentrations in the three panels



PM2.5
PM10–2.5
PM10
NO2
CO
O3
Pollutant increase


10 μg/m3
10 μg/m3
10 μg/m3
10 μg/m3
1 mg/m3
10 μg/m3
Panel
Outcome
Time
β *
SE (β)
p
β
SE (β)
p
β
SE (β)
p
β
SE (β)
p
β
SE (β)
p
β
SE (β)
p
COPD

24 h
-0.80
0.36
0.027
-1.32
1.06
0.210
-0.66
0.30
0.027
-0.72
0.49
0.139
-0.14
0.15
0.353
0.01
0.57
0.983

FVC (%)
48 h
-0.89
0.41
0.031
-1.46
1.31
0.265
-0.75
0.35
0.032
-0.43
0.58
0.463
-0.13
0.18
0.497
0.18
0.65
0.783


72 h§
-1.10
0.55
0.044
-1.38
1.53
0.367
-0.94
0.47
0.045
-0.10
0.70
0.886
0.15
0.23
0.508
-0.03
0.86
0.977


24 h
-0.47
0.33
0.149
-0.59
0.95
0.532
-0.37
0.27
0.167
-1.16
0.41
0.005
-0.05
0.13
0.725
-0.20
0.50
0.687

FEV1(%)
48 h
-0.69
0.37
0.061
-1.01
1.19
0.396
-0.58
0.31
0.067
-1.38
0.49
0.005
-0.12
0.16
0.467
0.31
0.56
0.578


72 h§
-1.06
0.50
0.032
-0.90
1.42
0.524
-0.87
0.43
0.040
-0.94
0.60
0.117
-0.03
0.20
0.900
0.68
0.74
0.363
Asthma

24 h
-0.14
0.29
0.617
-0.17
0.75
0.822
-0.12
0.24
0.621
-0.53
0.31
0.081
0.02
0.12
0.842
-0.33
0.41
0.416

FVC (%)
48 h
-0.07
0.33
0.825
-0.36
0.91
0.695
-0.09
0.29
0.750
-0.59
0.32
0.065
-0.001
0.13
0.995
0.02
0.42
0.957


72 h§
-0.06
0.39
0.886
-0.24
1.07
0.824
-0.08
0.36
0.836
-0.54
0.37
0.149
-0.06
0.16
0.700
0.14
0.50
0.782


24 h
-0.30
0.34
0.372
-0.67
0.89
0.448
-0.28
0.28
0.317
-1.10
0.35
0.002
-0.05
0.14
0.704
-0.41
0.50
0.421

FEV1(%)
48 h
-0.36
0.39
0.347
-1.19
1.07
0.265
-0.40
0.34
0.239
-1.28
0.37
0.001
-0.16
0.15
0.292
-0.01
0.51
0.983


72 h§
-0.40
0.46
0.384
-0.51
1.26
0.689
-0.40
0.43
0.351
-1.17
0.44
0.007
-0.28
0.18
0.126
0.46
0.60
0.449
IHD

24 h
0.37
0.26
0.164
0.37
0.73
0.617
0.28
0.22
0.198
0.15
0.29
0.612
0.176
0.101
0.081
0.58
0.33
0.077

FVC (%)
48 h
0.51
0.29
0.082
-0.25
0.88
0.779
0.35
0.25
0.160
-0.06
0.37
0.868
0.132
0.120
0.271
0.36
0.42
0.392


72 h§
0.73
0.40
0.069
0.67
1.04
0.519
0.59
0.34
0.079
0.36
0.47
0.440
0.132
0.165
0.425
0.08
0.60
0.898


24 h
0.43
0.33
0.192
0.25
0.86
0.770
0.32
0.27
0.240
-0.24
0.36
0.513
0.204
0.120
0.088
0.57
0.39
0.144

FEV1(%)
48 h
0.55
0.34
0.106
-0.23
1.02
0.818
0.38
0.29
0.193
0.00
0.44
0.994
0.114
0.142
0.420
0.53
0.50
0.288


72 h§
0.66
0.47
0.157
0.18
1.19
0.877
0.49
0.39
0.214
0.21
0.56
0.710
0.159
0.194
0.412
0.65
0.70
0.354
*Regression coefficient from GEE models for panel data controlling for repeated individual observations, temperature, relative humidity, and day of the week (COPD and IHD panels) or β-2 stimulant inhalation (asthma panel), representing the change in lung function index (% of predicted) per unit increase of pollutant concentration.
Concentration during the previous 24 hours.
Average concentration over the previous 48 hours.
§Average concentration over the previous 72 h.

 

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Source: Environ Health. 2006; 5: 11.  © 2006 Lagorio et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


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