Login

Join for Free!
118296 members
table of contents table of contents

Biology Articles » Neurobiology » Neurobiology of Diseases & Aging » Recent Advances in the Neurobiology of Schizophrenia » Tables

Tables
- Recent Advances in the Neurobiology of Schizophrenia

 ..................................................


TABLE 1. RISK FACTORS FOR SCHIZOPHRENIA AND THEIR EFFECT SIZES

Category Specific Effect size

 Genetica  MZ twin  45
   DZ twin or sibling  5
 Early envirornmentalb  Obsteric complications  2
   Maternal infection  2
   City birth  1.4
   Later winter/spring birth  1.1
 Late environmentalb  Immigrant status  4
   Chronic cannabis abuse  2
   Adverse life events  1.5
   Stress  1.5


a Relative risk;
b Odds ratio.
After McDonald and Murray, Brain Res. Brain Res. Rev. 31, 130–137 (2000).

 

 ..................................................


TABLE 2. SUMMARY OF NEUROCHEMICAL FINDINGS IN SCHIZOPHRENIA

Neurotransmitter Strength of evidence

Dopamine  
    Striatal D2 receptors {uparrow} ++++{alpha}
    Dopamine content or metabolism {uparrow} +++{alpha}
    Amphetamine-stimulated dopamine transmission {uparrow} +++
    Cortical D1 receptors {downarrow} +
    Cortical D3 receptors {uparrow} +
    D4 receptors {uparrow} +/-
    Abnormal configuration of D2 receptors +/-
    Altered dopamine receptor–G protein coupling +/-
Serotonin
    Cortical 5-HT2A receptors {downarrow} +++
    Cortical 5-HT1A receptors {uparrow} ++
    CSF 5-HIAA concentrations related to negative symptoms +
Glutamate
    Expression of non-NMDA receptors in the temporal cortex and hippocampus {downarrow} ++
    Cortical expression of some NMDA receptor subunits {uparrow} ++
    Glutamate reuptake in frontal cortex {uparrow} +
    Cortical glutamate release {downarrow} +
    Altered concentrations of glutamate and metabolites +/-


+/- = weak; + = moderate; ++ = good; +++ = strong; ++++ = very strong shown by meta-analysis. {uparrow} = increase; {downarrow} = decrease. {alpha} Though much of the increase is due to antipsychotic medication.

..................................................

Source: Molecular Interventions 3:27-39 (2003)




rating: 4.98 from 56 votes | updated on: 19 Dec 2006 | views: 82967 |

Rate article:







excellent!bad…