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Home » Biology Articles » Neurobiology » Neurobiology of Diseases & Aging » Actions of Caffeine in the Brain with Special Reference to Factors That Contribute to Its Widespread Use » Tables

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- Actions of Caffeine in the Brain with Special Reference to Factors That Contribute to Its Widespread Use


TABLE 1
Consumption of caffeine from coffee, tea, maté, and cocoaa

 

Country Population (1995) Coffee consumed Caffeine from coffee Tea consumed Caffeine from tea Maté consumed Caffeine from maté Cocoa consumed Caffeine from cocoa Caffeine from all these sources
1000 persb kton kg/pers/yr mg/ pers/ day kton kg/pers/yr mg/ pers/ day kton kg/pers/yr mg/ pers/ day kton kg/pers/yr mg/ pers/ day mg/ pers/ day
Algeria 28,109 54 1.92 79 4 0.12 5 0.0 0.00 0 4 0.14 1 85
Angola 10,816 1 0.09 4 0 0.00 - 0.0 0.00 0 0 0.00 0 4
Argentina 34,768 36 1.04 43 1 0.02 1 220.0 6.33 52 29 0.83 5 100
Australia 17,862 88 4.93 202 13 0.72 29 0.1 0.01 0 0.00 0 232
Austria 8,045 54 6.71 276 2 0.19 8 0.0 0.00 0 24 2.98 16 300
Brazil 159,015 100 0.63 26 2 0.02 1 191.6 1.20 10 110 0.69 4 40
Canada 29,402 129 4.39 180 13 0.44 18 0.1 0.00 0 62 2.11 12 210
China 1,220,224 53 0.04 2 407 0.33 14 0.0 0.00 0 39 0.03 0 16
Colombia 35,814 110 3.07 126 0 0.00 0 0.0 0.00 0 60 1.68 9 136
Denmark 5,223 45 8.62 354 2 0.36 15 0.0 0.00 0 20 3.83 21 390
Egypt 62,096 7 0.11 5 80 1.29 53 0.0 0.00 0 7 0.11 1 58
Finland 5,107 40 7.83 322 1 0.16 6 0.0 0.00 0 1 0.20 1 329
France 58,104 304 5.23 215 11 0.20 8 0.0 0.00 0 171 2.94 16 239
Germany 81,594 580 7.11 292 18 0.22 9 0.5 0.01 0 181 2.22 12 313
Guatemala 10,621 6 0.56 23 0 0.04 2 0.0 0.00 0 4 0.38 2 27
Honduras 5,654 22 3.89 160 0 0.00 - 0.0 0.00 0 2 0.35 2 162
Hungary 10,106 34 3.36 138 1 0.08 3 0.0 0.00 0 16 1.58 9 150
India 929,005 16 0.02 1 589 0.63 26 0.0 0.00 0 8 0.01 0 27
Ireland 3,546 7 1.97 81 11 3.10 127 0.0 0.00 0 3 0.85 5 213
Italy 57,204 276 4.82 198 5 0.08 3 0.0 0.00 0 82 1.43 8 210
Ivory Coast 13,694 2 0.15 6 0 0.03 1 0.0 0.00 0 32 2.34 13 20
Japan 125,068 362 2.89 119 135 1.08 44 0.0 0.00 0 119 0.95 5 169
Kenya 27,150 5 0.18 8 28 1.03 42 0.0 0.00 0 1 0.04 0 50
Kuwait 1,691 2 1.18 49 5 2.72 112 0.0 0.00 0 4 2.37 13 173
Malaysia 20,140 24 1.19 49 13 0.67 27 0.0 0.00 0 16 0.79 4 81
Netherlands 15,482 139 8.98 369 14 0.93 38 0.0 0.00 0 18 1.16 6 414
Nicaragua 4,123 22 5.34 219 0 0.00 - 0.0 0.00 0 1 0.24 1 221
Nigeria 111,721 4 0.04 1 5 0.04 2 0.0 0.00 0 14 0.13 1 4
Norway 4,332 40 9.23 379 1 0.18 8 0.0 0.00 0 10 2.31 13 400
Paraguay 4,828 6 1.24 51 0 0.02 1 59.2 12.26 101 3 0.62 3 156
Poland 38,557 94 2.44 100 31 0.81 33 0.0 0.00 0 54 1.40 8 141
Russian Fed 148,460 94 0.63 26 143 0.96 40 0.0 0.00 0 182 1.23 7 72
Saudi Arabia 18,255 6 0.33 14 6 0.32 13 0.0 0.00 0 5 0.27 2 28
South Africa 41,465 15 0.36 15 24 0.57 23 0.0 0.00 0 10 0.24 1 40
Sweden 8,788 83 9.44 388 3 0.28 12 0.0 0.00 0 11 1.25 7 407
Switzerland 7,166 48 6.70 275 2 0.28 11 0.0 0.00 0 1 0.14 1 288
Syria 14,208 12 0.84 35 23 1.62 67 8.0 0.56 5 6 0.42 2 108
Tanzania 30,026 2 0.07 3 3 0.10 4 0.0 0.00 0 0 0.00 0 7
United Arab Emirates 2,210 4 1.81 74 5 2.13 87 0.0 0.00 0 2 0.90 5 167
United Kingdom 58,301 131 2.25 92 137 2.34 96 0.0 0.00 0 147 2.52 14 202
United States 267,115 931 3.49 143 80 0.30 12 0.4 0.00 0 596 2.23 12 168
Venezuela 21,844 72 3.30 135 0 0.00 0 0.0 0.00 0 14 0.64 4 139
a The data on which this table is based are taken from the 1995 food balance sheets of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), which allow a very rough estimate of average consumption of foodstuffs in a population. Individual consumption will of course depend on whether a person consumes a certain product at all and, if so, how much. Another uncertainty inherent in food balance sheets is that they do not correct for waste (e.g., losses in processing, coffee brewed but not drunk, etc.). One major advantage of food balance sheets is that data are available for all the countries of the world. Coffee: Caffeine content in coffee beans varies depending on the species. Arabica coffees contain about 1.1% caffeine and Robusta about 2.2% dry weight (Gilbert, 1984; Viani, 1993). The amount of caffeine extracted varies with preparation technique used, ranging from 75% in boiled coffee, 80% in espresso, and 85% in percolated coffee, to nearly 100% in filtered coffee (D'Amicis and Viani, 1993). Tastes differ in different countries, and the relative proportions of Robusta and Arabica (and hence caffeine content) in the coffee blends vary. In Scandinavia, Arabica is used almost exclusively; in Southern Europe and North America, the proportion of Robusta can be 50 to 60% (D'Amicis and Viani, 1993). There is a tendency that preparation techniques with a greater caffeine extraction efficiency are used in countries that consume mainly Arabica coffee (e.g., filtered coffee in Sweden) and techniques with a lower extraction efficiency in countries where more Robusta is consumed (e.g., espresso coffee in Italy). For these calculations the caffeine content is taken as 1.6%, and the extraction efficiency is taken as 95%. Tea: The caffeine content in tea leaves depends on age of leaf (young leaves have about 4% by dry weight, old leaves contain less than half that), amount of fertilization (as fertilization increases caffeine content) season, and treatment after harvest (Graham, 1984b). About half the caffeine in tea leaves can be extracted, but the caffeine content in the beverage itself is strongly dependent on the brewing time (Graham, 1984b; IARC Working Group, 1991). For these calculations the caffeine content of tea is taken as 3% and the extraction efficiency as 50%. Maté: The caffeine content of maté ranges from 0.9 to 2.2% (dry weight) in a fresh leaf (Graham, 1984a). As usually prepared, 50 g of maté yields 1 liter of beverage containing a total of 160 mg of caffeine. The extraction figure used here is 0.3% of the total weight of the maté leaves. Cocoa: The caffeine content varies considerably in beans from different varieties of cacao trees: it is low in some (around 0.2% w/w in dry, defatted beans) but can be quite high in certain experimental clones (as much as 1%) (Shively and Tarka, 1984). For these calculations, the amount of caffeine consumed is assumed to correspond to 0.2% of the total domestic consumption of cocoa products.
b pers, persons.


TABLE 2
Content of caffeine of various foods and beveragesa

 

Product Volume or weight Caffeine content
mg
Roasted and ground coffee
  Percolated 150 ml 40-170
  Drip 150 ml 60-180
  Decaffeinated 150 ml 2-5
Instant coffee
  Caffeinated 150 ml 40-180
  Decaffeinated 150 ml 2-8
Tea
  Bagged 150 ml 28-44
  Leaf 150 ml 30-48
  Instant 150 ml 24-50
  Iced 150 ml 28-32
Cocoa 150 ml 2-7
Chocolate bar
  Milk 28 g 1-15
  Sweet 28 g 5-36
  Dark 28 g 5-35
Baking chocolate 28 g 18-118
Soft drinks
  Regular cola 180 ml 15-24
  Caffeine-free cola 180 ml 0
  Diet cola 180 ml 13-29
a Data from Debry (1994) and Barone and Roberts (1996).


TABLE 3
Potency of caffeine at rat and human adenosine receptor subtypes

 

Receptor subtype Rat (KD) Human (KD)
µM
A1 receptors 20 12
A2A receptors 8.1 2.4
A2B receptors 17 13
A3 receptors 190 80


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